September 2016 Edition

IJASR Volume 4 – Issue 3, September 2016 Edition

All listed papers are published after full consent of respective author or co-author(s).
For any discussion on research subject or research matter, the reader should directly contact to undersigned authors.

Bio-Inspired Design Tool to Emerge Multifractal Forms

Bashar Swaid, Eleonora Bilotta, Pietro Pantano, Roberta Lucente

ABSTRACT: Complexity has been long defined as a general law of nature based on the sudden emergence of new organizations. Langton, in his seminal paper of 1992 explained the general idea behind emergence that shows local variables interacting together at the object-level, and the sudden emergence of global structure above it, which then feeds back on the local variables. Examples of this can be found in all living organisms and even super organisms, such as a beehive, city or any type of social organization. This interacting capacity for achieving balance between ordered and chaotic systems, interprets the spreading of this approach into various scientific fields, especially at the efficient design and bio-inspired geometrical development. In Multifractal geometries the value of urban connectivity and complexity threshold forms a phase transition “sudden emergence” of the dynamical urban behaviour that guarantees the complex shapes continuity’s, homogeneity’s and coherence’s. The research will utilize a new bio-Inspired design tool (BIDT), (to emerge adaptive Multifractal forms), which possess a dynamic capability of deterministic chaos behaviour mixture, and based on weighted fitness function design to achieve hybrid control of the optimization criterion between the designer and evolutionary process. The focus of this research is on emerging Multifractal forms that adaptively self-organized depending on the feedback, through BIDT for evolutionary multi-criteria optimization. The research will address the morphological challenge that aimed to transcend the building complexity and urban connectivity thresholds. This morphological approach produce an objective method for assessment urban connectivity and complexity, which helps respond to the modern and efficiency geometric computing challenges.

[Download]                                                                     1-9


Saudi Men Perceptions About The Factors Causing Road Traffic Accidents in the Kingdom Of Saudi Arabia, 2013

Reem AlMarshad, Hanine Amer, Sara AlSubait, Wijdan AlKhidady, Afnan AlBuraik, Mohammed AlTamimi Razan AlKhatib, Dana AlAbdulqader, Dana AlMishri, Razan AlHussain, Yazeed AlKhader

ABSTRACT: The kingdom of Saudi Arabia has witnessed a huge economic growth in the past few decades, resulting in an increase in the number of population and vehicles. This increase in motor numbers has resulted in a high incidence of road accidents in Saudi Arabia in recent years. The aim of this study was to create awareness about the causes of road traffic accidents in the hope to decrease the incidence of these accidents. Our objectives in this study were to find out different perceptions of Saudi male drivers about the causes of RTAs and based on their perceptions we can direct the attention to the real problems in order to decrease the incidence of RTAs. A cross-sectional study design was used. The data was collected by distributing questionnaires to 384 Saudi male drivers aged between 18-60 visiting the malls in Dammam and al-khobar during the month of July. The results show that 69% of the sample thought that drivers are the main cause of accidents. While 6.7% thought that it is due to the vehicles and 17.7% thought it’s the roads. Regarding their opinions if more strict rules will lead to less traffic accidents, 49.7% agreed that setting strict sanctions would lead to positive results while 5.90% disagreed and only 9.70% thought that theses sanctions would be useless. In conclusion, road traffic accidents remain a leading cause of death and disability in kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Responses of Saudi males indicate that drivers and their driving attitude play the leading cause of both fatal and non-fatal accidents. There is an urgent need to develop laws and health policies that address this health issue.

[Download]                                                                   10-17


Non-Adherence to Lifestyle Modification Recommendations amongst Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients in Almadinah Almonawarah

Jamla’a Alharbi, Maryam Alsubhi


Background: Non-adherence to lifestyle recommendations by type 2 diabetic patients increases the risk of serious complications such as stroke, heart disease and increased the incidence of retinopathy, peripheral nerve damage and renal problems compared to the general population.

Objectives: To determine frequency and reasons of non-adherence to diet and exercise recommendations amongst type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in Almadinah Almonawarah.

Methods: This is a web based survey. The sample comprised 385 participants diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus aged ≥ 30 years. The self-administered questionnaire included sociodemographic characteristics, compliance to dietary and exercise recommendation and reasons for non-adhering to life style modifications.

Results: 51.2% were female. Estimated rates of non-adherence to diet and exercise were 28.1% and 49.1 % respectively. Reasons for non-adherence to dietary recommendations were poor self-control (40%), 29.6% returned their non-adherence to dietary to situations at home (they mean eat non-healthy diets when alone), 21.2% mentioned inappropriate dietary habits; while the main perceived reasons for non-adherence to exercise were; too busy to exercise (31.5%), lack of exercise partner (28%), unfavorable weather conditions (21%).

Conclusion: Non-adherence to diet and exercise recommendations amongst type 2 diabetes patients is far more prevalent and no particular single reason could be attributed to poor adherence to either diet or exercise recommendations.

[Download]                                                                    18-26


Thirty-day Readmission is Higher in Patients with Brainstem vs. non-Brainstem Lacunar Stroke

Alaa T Hijji, Saba A Rammal, Mohammed A Almekhlafi

Background: A quarter of all ischemic strokes are classified as lacunar. We explored whether certain lacunar stroke locations are associated with a certain set of risk factors or clinical characteristics.
Methods: This is a retrospective study of stroke patients admitted to a tertiary hospital over five years. Lacunar strokes were confirmed on CT or MRI. Locations included: internal capsule, thalamus, basal ganglia and brainstem. Clinical characteristics and outcomes were compared between different locations.
Results: Out of 548 stroke patients, 50 (38% female) had lacunar strokes. The median age was 60.5 years and hypertension was the most common risk factor (86%), followed by DM (78%). The commonest location for lacunar stroke was basal ganglia (48%), and the least common was the brainstem (16%). There was no correlation between the patients’ characteristic with lacunar location. There was a significant correlation between readmission and brainstem lacunars (p<0.001, Spearman correlation coefficient 0.464) but not in other locations. Readmissions in brainstem lacunar infarctions were mostly due to recurrent stroke.
Conclusion: Brainstem lacunar strokes have higher risk of 30day re-admission, mainly due to recurrent stroke. Those patients require further investigations

[Download]                                                                    27-31


CO gas sensing behavior of synthesized α-Fe2O3 nanorods fabricated via Alternative Current (AC) electric fields Javad.

Javad. Esmaeilzadeh, Ebrahim. Zohourvahid Karimi

Abstract: In this work, the α-Fe2O3 nanorods with 50-100 nm in width were first synthesized by hydrothermal method. Thereafter, α-Fe2O3 nanorods were deposited within the gap of interdigitated platinum electrodes designed on an alumina sheet using print screen by employing the AC electrophoretic deposition technique at the frequency of 10 kHz. Finally, the gas sensing properties of the α-Fe2O3 nanorods toward CO gas (100-1600ppm) at 300-400  were investigated. The results demonstrated that this sensor has suitable and rapid response as well as reasonable recovery times. The optimum temperature giving the highest response was achieved at 350 . The response and recovery time for 900 ppm CO gas at optimal temperature was calculated to be 20 and 30 Sec, respectively.

[Download]                                                                   32-39


Stress among Female Undergraduate Students at University of Dammam, Saudi Arabia (2012)

Bayan A. Alnassir, Fatima A. AlRadhi, Hajar Y. AlYagout, Hanan A. Alhawaj, Reema H. Bukhamseen, Sara A. Altarouti, Zahra A. Al-Ibrahim

ABSTRACT: Researchers have studied Stress among university students over the years. Because of the effects it has on health and academic performance. The aim of this study was to study stress by measuring its level, identifying its sources and how to cope with it among female students in the University of Dammam in Saudi Arabia in the year of 2012. A cross-sectional study design was used. The data was collected by administering questionnaires to the students. The results indicated that students experienced moderate levels of stress and faced stressors from three sources: academic, social and financial, but mainly from the academic source. The levels of stress differed between different specialties with medical students scoring higher levels of stress than non-medical students. Coping with stress responses showed that sleeping was the preferred method for coping followed by surfing the Internet and watching TV. The stress level in University of Dammam needs attention and intervention.  Offering students counseling programs for social, academic and psychological stressors will help reduce the stress level and leave them in a healthy mental state.

[Download]                                                                 40-48