December 2019 Edition

ISSN: 2272-6446 Volume 7, Issue 4 (November – December 2019), PP 12-27

All listed papers are published after full consent of respective author or co-author(s).

For any discussion on research subject or research matter, the reader should directly contact to undersigned authors.


A survey on the parents awareness of the relationship of heavy metals: lead and mercury to autism in Saudi Arabia

Asia Alharbi, Nawaf Almuntashiri, Osama Alsahafi, Salma Alsayed, Hamzah Alzahrani, Walla A. Elwani

Abstract: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that causes behavior abnormalities. ASD is prevalent in 1-2% of the population worldwide affecting males four times more as compared to the females. In the current study, data of 158 autistic children was collected from various regions of Saudi Arabia. A questionnaire-based cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the effect of lead and mercury on autism in Saudi Arabia. The results showed that ASD was affected males three times more than the females. Children of age 6-10 were found to be more affected with ASD than other age groups. Factors involved in the onset of autism included exposure to environmental pollutants, use of canned foods, dental amalgam fillings, obesity and smoking. Most of the parents were found to be unaware of the role of heavy metals in ASD and sources of these pollutants. Additionally, testing for the presence of heavy metals was done in only 14.3% of the studied children. These results show that there is a lack of awareness and insufficient knowledge about autism among parents. Thus, there is a need for creating further awareness among the people regarding toxic effect of heavy metal pollutants and sources of these pollutants.


Keywords: Autism disorder, lead, mercury, toxicity.

[Download]                                                                      P01-11


Synthesis of Some Anthraquinone Derivatives

Ayman Ramadan, Kamal Khoudari, Jinan Mashhoud

Abstract: An anthraquinone derivatives: 1.4-dihydroxy anthraquinone, 1,4,8-trihydroxy anthraquinone and 1-amino-4-hydroxyanthraquinone have been synthesized using mixture of concentrated sulfuric acid and boric acid. 1,4-diamino anthraquinone has been synthesized using catalyst of molybdophosphoric acid. Tow anthraquinone carboxy derivatives (4-hydroxy anthraquinone-1-carboxylic acid and 1-hydroxy anthraquinone-2-carboxylic acid) have been synthesized by using catalyst of boron triflouride. All these derivatives have been synthesized by Friedel-Crafts acylation between benzene derivatives and phthalic anhydride. The structures of synthesized compounds are confirmed by physical characteristics and spectroscopic analysis, i.e. 1D (1H and 13C) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) tools.


Keywords: Anthraquinone Derivatives, Friedel Crafts Reaction, FT-IR, 1HNMR, 13CNMR.

[Download]                                                                       P12-27


Evaluating energy saving and thermal comfort using a hybrid personal ventilation system

Mohammad Youssef Al Hashem, Ahmad Habib

Abstract: The Increasing energy demands in buildings sector resulted in more energy saving needs, building sector consumes about 40 % of the global energy yield. Due to the modern work lifestyle, people spend more and more time inside buildings, where the ratio of spent time inside buildings reaches 86%. In this work, a hybrid personal ventilation system was proposed, combining the benefits of the standard personal ventilation, PV, and the local exhaust ventilation for offices, LEVO. The free open-source CFD software OpenFOAM was used to perform the CFD calculations in the in-doors environments. A valid numerical an experimental cubicle model was used. The local exhausts were introduced in the cubicle, and the effect of exhaust location and basic flow parameters were studied numerically. Then the numerical results were validated experimentally, the relative errors didn’t exceed 1.2 % while validating the temperature flow field. Using this concept, an energy saving of 13.53% was accomplished compared to a standard personal ventilation system. Economical operation conditions that can save about 46.74% from the consumed energy and keep an acceptable comfort level compared to the best available thermal conditions were determined.


Keywords: Age of air, OpenFOAM, personal ventilation, thermal comfort, thermal plume.

[Download]                                                                   PP 28-41