December 2016 Edition

 IJASR Volume 4 – Issue 4, December 2016 Edition

All listed papers are published after full consent of respective author or co-author(s).
For any discussion on research subject or research matter, the reader should directly contact to undersigned authors.

Prevalence of Premenstrual Syndrome and its Impact on the Daily Activities of Students in King Faisal University

A. AL Ghadeer, Z. S. AL Shuhayb, F. A. AL luwaim, B. A. AL Jughaiman, S. H. AL Haji

Abstract: Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is one of the most common disorders in women, yet little is known about factors that influence its development. Aim: We conduct this study in order topromote physical health of female and to project the need for adolescent health services in our community. So we aimed to document the effect of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) and quality of life also to examine the association of PMS severity and possible food habits in adolescent girls. Methods: A cross sectional study conducted on 354 King Faisal Universitystudents. Students aged between 19 to 25 years completed a self-reported questionnaire, in which biographical data, PMS symptoms, and possible risk factors that may influence the experienced physical impairment during PMS. Multiple regression analysis was performed to determine the different correlations. Results: The results revealed that 92.2% of the participants experienced moderate to severe PMS. The degree in which physical impairment was experience was significantly associated with excessive sweet food consumption, tea and coffee intake, and passive smoking. Conclusion: It was concluded that PMS is common among King Faisal University students. Thus, the establishment of a national school and college awareness program was recommended to raise the awareness about PMS among the population.

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Hemorrhagic Glioblastoma Multiform: Prevalence, Predisposing Factors and Prognosis Among Adult KFMC Patients

Ahmed Lary, Ali balbaid, Rabea qutub, Saad almaimouni

Abstract: Gliomas is a collection of tumors arising from glial cells or their precursors within the central nervous system. Histopathologically, gliomas are divided into four grades; the most aggressive of these grades is grade 4 or Glioblastoma Multiform (GBM), which is considered the most common primary intracranial neoplasm of the central nervous system. It has a prevalence of 15% to 20% of all primary central nervous system tumors. These GBM tumors can be presented in different forms. Intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) is one of these forms, which can happen to different degrees and extension with variation in the degree of prognosis. The general prognosis for GBM associated with ICH worsens with increasing age in elderly patients. (1,2). The rationale behind this study is to determine the effect of hemorrhage on the diseases prognosis, know the prevalence and predisposing factors which could help to get good prognosis for patients and could prevent the complication development.

We have documented 530 brain tumor patients at the national neuroscience institute database. Both male and female patients who are ≥ 18 years old with pathological diagnosis of glioblastoma multi form were included. The exclusion criterion was patients who have any hemolytic disease. A retrospective medical record review was performed for patients diagnosed between 2008 through 2013. We reviewed how many patients presenting with ICH among GBM, data of the predisposing factors that is common between ICH GBM and compare it with non hemorrhagic GBM patients. In addition, the study reviewed the prognosis of ICH GBM patients, and then compared them with non hemorrhagic GBM patients.

We found the prevalence of hemorrhagic GBM in the study population 29.2%, where the non-hemorrhagic GBM accounted for 70.8%. The prevalence of hemorrhagic GBM in relation to the gender was almost the same between males and females (29 %). Hemorrhagic GBM patients’ mean survival time was (1.8 years), and they had worse prognosis (less survival time) than non-hemorrhagic GBM patients did. The predisposing factor, which increased the risk of the development ICH in GBM patients, was increasing age of the patient. Frontal lobe location was the least prognostic factor to develop ICH in GBM patients comparable to other lobes locations .

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Case Report: Keloid Scar in A Rare Congenital (Inherited) Coagulation Factor Deficiency

Abeer AlEssa, Faii AlQahtani, Manar AlOtaibi, Hadeel AlOmran, Osama AlSultan

Abstract: Factor XIII deficiency is one of the rare bleeding diathesis, the presentation of which varies from multiple ecchymosis, hematomas, poor wound healing, spontaneous abortion to even a sever life-threatening intracranial hemorrhage. A rare manifestation of this disorder is excessive scar formation and keloids. Here we report a case of a 35 years old lady who we diagnosed to have Factor XIII deficiency as she presented with an excessive scar formation, keloid, following a burn trauma

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Influence of the 12-steps process on rehabilitation and recovery of alcoholics at Asumbi AA center of Kenya

Lazarus Millan Okello

Abstract: The present study investigated the influence of the 12-steps process on rehabilitation and recovery of alcoholics at Asumbi AA center of Kenya. This study adopted the ex- post- facto design. The target population was 70 alcoholics admitted at Asumbi AA Centre, three administrative staffs, the manager and the six counselors at Asumbi Alcoholic Anonymous Centre.  In order to determine the sample size of the alcoholics to be drawn from the 70 clients enrolled at Asumbi AA Centre, the study used Krejcie and Morgan (1970) table of determining sample size from a given population. For a population of seventy (70) according to the table we got a sample size of 59 clients. The instrument included an observation check list with five (5) items used to assess the availability of the facilities and the general structure of the institution. Two sets of questionnaires, one for the rehabilitation staffs with twenty (20) items and another set comprising nineteen (19) items to  the sampled alcoholics to collect information on the efficacy of alcoholics in Asumbi AA Centre. To ensure content and face validity, the researcher piloted the instrument with 15 alcoholics, the manager and three counselors at the RAM Alcoholic Anonymous Centre. The study found out that, following the 12- step process by the client’s significantly enhanced rehabilitation and recovery of alcoholics at the AA centers. The study recommended that, Counselors at the AA centers should be employed by the government to avoid compromising the quality of their training and poor remunerations.

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The glycemic effect of thaumatin and its mixture with sucrose in type 2 diabetes patients

Warid Khayata, Ahmad Kamri, Rasha Alsaleh

Abstract: A randomized, prospective, single-blind, and parallel group study was conducted to investigate the effect of several sweeteners on blood glucose level (BGL). It included 29 healthy subjects and 22 with T2D. Three phases were included; a screening phase, a test phase, and a follow-up evaluation. Sweeteners included sucrose (S), thaumatin (T), and their mixture (M), which their amounts in 150 ml of water were: 24.05 g, 9.62 mg, 9.41 g and 5.85 mg, respectively. S group has promoted a significant elevating in BGL after 30 min, whether in healthy or T2D groups (p < 0.01). On the other hand, there was no peak in T solution which has reduced BGL especially in those with T2D, (p < 0.01). Whereas M solution has shown an intermediate state. Despite its low peak that it induced in BGL, it proved safety since its similarity to relevant BGL of T group at all intervals (p> 0.05) whether for healthy or T2D groups. Ingestion of thaumatin by T2D ones worked for their benefit; it can indirectly decrease BGL. The studied mixture can be consumed safely by mild to moderate T2D who reducing both body weight and blood glucose for them would be enough for glycemic control.

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Awareness And Factors Influenced Selecting Forensic Medicine As Career Among Male Medical Students in AlBaha  University, Saudi Arabia


Abstract: Forensic medicine is a branch of medicine dealing with the application of medical knowledge to establish facts in civil or criminal legal cases. It is typically involved in cases concerning blood relationship, injury, or death resulting from violence. For some people, the decision on which specialty to choose is not an easy one. Aim of  present study is to assess awareness factors influenced selecting forensic medicine as career among male medical students in AlBaha University, Saudi Arabia Methods: A cross-sectional study. The questionnaire was self-design questionnaire. The sampling was random sampling technique for all undergraduate male students Result: A total of 95 medical students in all years of study in Albaha University were included. Concerning the awareness about forensic medicine 52.8% of student they don’t know and the  influential factors in developing interest in forensic medicine were   personal interest and personal reasons  about  84.2% of subjects. The medical students were prefer forensic medicine as specialty by 34%. Conclusion: The medical education has important role to decline the percent of lack of knowledge about forensic medicine and begin action to establishing mentor programs for all specialties to direct students to pike up specialty that suitable for them.

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Caregivers Burden of Chronic Medical Illnesses in Older Patients

Hashim Balubiad, Qamar Khojah, Rawan AlDahash, Sara AlMedlej, Shorowk AlRumaihi, Alaa Althubaiti

Abstract: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 150 adult caregivers of patients with chronic illnesses in three tertiary medical centers in Riyadh 2015.This study addresses different aspects of burden placed on caregivers of chronic older patients.

Caregivers who fulfilled the inclusion criteria, were approached by consecutive sampling. Participants were interviewed using an Arabic version of the Montgomery Borgatta Burden Measure Scale. The scale measures the Subjective (SB), Objective (OB) and Stress Burden (StB).

The results showed that the SB, OB and StB were found to be mild in the sampled population (7.7±3.7, 14.2±3.4, and 9.05±4.2) respectively, compared to reference values (13.5, 23 and 15) of high burden. The StB was found to be higher in females than in males (9.86±4.56 vs. 8.44±3.89 respectively, p=0.041). Furthermore, nurses were found to have a greater SB compared to relatives (11.4 ±5.29 vs. 7.58±3.34 respectively, p=0.002). Analysis also showed that the caregivers who were employed elsewhere had lower StB, and OB (p=0.004, and 0.034, respectively). No other associations were found.

In Conclusions, caregivers of chronically ill patients experienced a distinct level of burden while providing care. Socio-demographic factors were predictors of the level of burden.

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Rising of public medical awareness is the most important motivating factor for hematopoietic stem cell donation in Saudi Arabia

Omar B. Alfraidy, Hind H. Alharbi, Mona N. Alrehaili, Mohammed B. Alfridy, Reem S. Alkabli, Turki A. Alwasaidi 

Abstract: Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is considered as curative treatment approach for many hematological malignancies and other diseases 1,2. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) matched donor availability is one of the main obstacle that could prevent patient from getting the best available treatment approach. The goal from this study is to identify barriers and motivators of hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) donation among Saudi Arabia society that might expand donation in the future.

Methods: A cross-sectional, self-administrated questionnaire, study carried out in Almadinah Almunawarah. The targeted participants were all visitors of the stem cell donation campaigns that were running in Taibah University and in one of the shopping malls in Almadinah Almunawarah between 22nd and 29th of October 2015. Participants’ age must be above 15 years old. The statistical analysis has been performed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS), version 22.0, with applying Chi Square analysis.

RESULTS: The questionnaires that have been completed and included in the analysis were 605, while 15 were excluded due to incomplete data. Of the included participants, 65.8% were males and 34.2% were females, with age ranged between 15-65 years old. The age of most participants from both genders consider young age, which was younger than 45 year old (97%). The rising medical awareness and an easy access to the HSC donation registry by increasing the donation centers will increase the recruitment of donors as those were suggested by 59.7% and 40.7% of participants, respectively. Other factors such as identifying or knowing the recipient to the donor and financial motivations were considered as important motivators for 37.2%, and 7.1% of participants, respectively. Religious and financial motivations were suggested by 23% and 10%, respectively, as the most effective methods to increase number of HSC donation (Figure1). The social media was suggested by 52.4% of participants as the best way to increase awareness of HSC donation, while 31.4%, 4%, 8.3%, and 1.8% of participants were suggested increasing awareness through university and school, TV and Radio advertising, establishment of awareness lecture and seminars, and journals and magazines advertising, respectively. The fear of needles, procedures or its complications was the highest factor (44.6%) of preventing participants of potential donation. While the small number of donation centers, presence of a health issue, concern about the elapsed time for donation and unsure of usefulness of the donation were preventing 36%, 18%, 10%, and 6% of participants, respectively. However, there were 12 (2%) participants indicated previous bad experience.

Conclusion: Saudi society needs an easy access to Saudi Stem Cell Donor Registry (SSCDR), beside the interment campaigns events, throughout the year; with rising of public awareness about HSC donation to correct misconceptions about HSC donation that likely going to improve recruitment of potential donors to SSCDR.

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Clinical Characteristics of Critically-ill Heat Stroke Population

Wed Albardi, Anees A. Sindi, Shadi S. Khayyat, Mohammed A. Almekhlafi

Abstract: During Hajj season of 2015, a significant number of heat stroke cases were reported. This was mainly due to hot weather, which may exceed 40C throughout the day.  This review included fifteen critically ill heat stroke patients presented to the King Abdulaziz University Hospital. Objective: This study aimed to review clinical presentation, complications and outcomes of these patients.  Methods: A retrospective study was performed; data were collected from hospital records where all patients received care at the hospital ICU department. Demographic data, clinical and laboratory data and imaging parameters were abstracted. Data were entered and analyzed using the STATA Statistical Package. Results: A total of fifteen patients were included.  The mean age was 51.2 (10.5) years and 46.7% were females. The mean presenting temperature was 36.1 (1.8). The median GCS was 8 (range 3 to 15). The median hospital stay was 7 days (interquartile range, 17 days). In-hospital mortality occurred in two patients (13.3%). Twelve patients (80%) required admission to the ICU for mechanical and / or hemodynamic support. The median APACHE-2 score was 22 (range 14 to 33). The median ICU stay was 9.5 days (interquartile range, 14.5 days). None ST elevation myocardial infarction was diagnosed in three patients (20%). Seven patients (46.7%) had rhabdomyolysis but acute kidney injury was noted only in four (26.7%) who required Continuous renal replacement therapy and/ or hemodialysis. Conclusion: Patients with heat stroke are usually acutely ill with multi organ involvement. While the prognosis has improved with modern medical care, septic shock or renal impairment can carry mortality risk.

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Influence of polyeclectrolyte concentration and metallic ions on viscosity of soft colloidal polysaccharides

Jean-Pierre S. Sagou, Séka Simplice Kouassi, Jonas Y.Y. Andji

Abstract: Viscosity of carboxymethyldextran (CMD), a charged and well-defined polysaccharide, was evaluated in the presence and in the absence of divalent cations (calcium and cadmium) in aqueous NaNO3 solution. The data collected in the absence of metallic ions clearly indicates that CMD viscosity is almost independent on polymer concentration at sufficiently high ionic strength while an influence of polyelectrolyte concentration occurs on viscosity at low salt concentrations, reflecting stretched polymer chains and the overlap of their electrical double layers. At high electrolyte background concentration where electrostatic effects are minimized, the presence of metal ions leads to a significant decrease of CMD viscosity, pointing out a structural modification following complexation of metal ions with CMD carboxylicreactive sites.

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ABSTRACTSpectrophotometric method was developed and applied for simultaneous determination of two colorants: Tartrazine (T) and Carmoisine (C), in Syrian foodstuffs. This study was applied on several Syrian foodstuffs as: (Custard Powder Strawberry, Crème Caramel Strawberry, Cream Chantilly Strawberry, Cotton Candy, Yellow Chewing-gums, Strawberry Chewing-gums, Silca Strawberry, Windmill powder Jelly, Lemon and Strawberry Diva, Samiry Candies, Lemon and Strawberry Ice Cream). Derivative spectrophotometric (DS) method was applied for the determination of (T) and (C), respectively. Tartrazine was determined by first derivative spectrophotometry at 370 nm (1D370); and Carmoisine was determined by first derivative spectrophotometry at 570 nm (1D570).  Linearity ranges were 4-40 𝜇g/mL for (T) and 2-40 𝜇g/mL for (C), regression analysis showed a good correlation coefficients R2 = 0.9999 and R2 = 0.9998 for (T) and (C), respectively. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were to be 0.73 and 2.23 𝜇g/mL for (T), 0.30 and 0.91 𝜇g/mL for (C), respectively. The proposed derivative method was successfully applied to analysis individual or mixture of Tartrazine and Carmoisine in foodstuffs. All studied samples showed dye levels conformity with Syrian legislation.

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Knowledge and Attitude of the Undergraduate Medical and Health Care Students Towards Basic Life Support in Saudi Arabia

Alhanouf Alhedaithy, Ashwaq Almutairi, Asma Mohammad, Fatima Almutiri, Maysah Othman Badri, Adeebah Albogami, and Saud H Aldubayan

Abstract: Basic life support (BLS) is a set of essential skills that has been proven to decrease the mortality and morbidity following sudden cardiac arrest (SCA). The American Heart Association has emphasized on the importance of mastering the BLS skills for all health care providers.  This study is aimed to evaluate the current level of knowledge, attitude and skills of the undergraduate medical and health care students towards BLS.  Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire-based study was conducted. A well- structured questionnaire was distributed among students of various healthcare-related colleges in Saudi Arabia. The questionnaire consisted of 3 major parts that evaluated different aspects of BLS skills and knowledge.  Results: 750 undergraduate students in the fields of applied medical sciences, dentistry, medicine, nursing and pharmacy participated in the study. Only 369 (49.2%) students were BLS certified at the time of the study. Over 99% of the participants had a positive attitude towards BLS. However, up to 90% of the participants were not able to identify some of the essential skills of BLS such as how to conduct a pulse check, how to deliver rescue breaths or how to use an AED when available. Less than half of the participants had the confidence to use their knowledge and skills in real life situations. Discussion: The study has revealed the positive attitude towards BLS. However, there was a lack of adequate training, experience, knowledge and skills in a significant number of participating students. Frequent BLS training as well as incorporating the BLS skills in the academic curricula may improve students’ BLS knowledge and skills.

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The Outcome of Pediatric Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation At King Abdullah Specialized Children’s Hospital (KASCH)

Muath Abuhaimed, Batal Aldosari, Bassam Alduwaifiry, Turki A. Alqahtani, Mohammed Essa, Abdulrahman Alsultan

Abstract: Allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) is an important modality of therapy for children with cancer and inherited disorders such as thalassemia.  In this study, we reviewed the allogeneic SCT experience of the Pediatric SCT program at King Abdullah Specialized Children’s Hospital (KASCH) in Riyadh from January 2010 – December 2014. The following data were collected through chart reviews including patients’ demographics (age and gender), diagnosis, degree of HLA matching, stem cell source, conditioning regimens, and treatment outcomes. A total of 51 patients were transplanted during this period, of those 27 were males and 24 females. The median age at transplantation was 5.1 (range, 0.2–13.4) years. A total of 45 patients were transplanted using matched related donors and 6 were transplant from unrelated cord blood transplant (UCBT). All patients engrafted successfully except 2 patients who had UCBT.  The median time for neutrophils engraftment was 24 days (range, 9-58 days) and for platelets engraftment 25 days (range, 8-73). Transplant related mortality at day 100 was 5%. The frequency of acute GVHD grade (II-IV) was 7.8% and for grade (III-IV) was 2%. There was only 9% with chronic GVHD. The 1-year and 2-year event free survival was 83.7%. In addition, the 1-year overall survival was 89.4% and the 2-year overall survival was 86.7%. The events were two graft failure with the cord transplants and two late graft failure in match related (bone marrow), three of those underwent successful second transplant. The causes of death were pulmonary toxicity in 2 patients, sever GVHD in 1 patient and leukemia relapses in 2 patients. In conclusion, the survival outcome of pediatric allogeneic SCT at KASCH is comparable to those reported from other centers. We observed low rate of GVHD in our study, which is expected given that majority of cases were transplanted from matched related donors.

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Dr. Andrea Giacalone, Prof. Gennaro Rocco, Phd.s Enzo Ruberti


BACKGROUND: Pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) has become a standard of care in patients affected by chronic pulmonary diseases. This article addresses the currently available literature on respiratory rehabilitation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). OBJECTIVES:  To investigate the impact of PR on quality of life and on the physical and psychological conditions of the patient. METHODS: In June 2016 the Pubmed and Google Scholar databases were searched to retrieve the articles dealing with the efficacy of PR. RESULTS: It has been demonstrated that positive outcomes from PR programs include increased exercise tolerance, reduced dyspnea and overall improvement in health-related quality of life (QoL), regardless of the patient’s age. The BODE index (a multidimensional scoring system) was used to test patients diagnosed with COPD and to predict long-term outcomes for them. CONCLUSIONS: PR has proved to be clinically beneficial and considered the right therapeutic approach in the follow-up and management of patients suffering from respiratory diseases.

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Prevalence and Characteristics of Mitral Valve Prolapse in Adult Echocardiography Population in King Abdulaziz Medical City Over a 10Year Period

Mohammad G. Al Ghamdi, Yara O. Al Khodair, AlAnoud K. Al Kahtani


Background: Mitral Valve Prolapse (MVP) is a well-recognized pathological entity that is associated with significant morbidity. Prevalence, pathological characteristics and clinical outcome of MVP in Saudi Arabia has not been estimated. Aims: Aim of the study is to estimate the prevalence, and type of management practices of MVP among an adult population who underwent echocardiographic (echo) evaluation at King Abdulaziz Cardiac Center (KACC) over 10-year period. Methods: Retrospective review of consecutive echo database (Xcelera®) studies performed for adult ( ≥ 14 y) patients at KACC between January 2002 and December 2011. Out of 53,258 database subjects, 232 definite myxomatous MVP cases were identified and included in the study. Mitral valve diseases other than myxomatous MVP were excluded. Results:Prevalence of MVP was 33 cases per 10,000 echo studies and average annual incidence was 3 cases per 1000 echo studies per year. Mean age at first echo evaluation was 40 ± 18 years. Saudi nationals represented 87% of cases, mostly of male gender (65%). Frequencies of bi-leaflet, posterior leaflet and anterior leaflet were 37.5%, 33.5% and 29% respectively. Hemodynamically significant MVP was present in 55% of cases with 30% of cases having flail segments and 18% having ruptured chordae. One third of patients (34%) underwent surgical intervention, mostly in form of valve repair (89%). Conclusion: MVP in this large echo-based population seems to be less prevalent than internationally known figures. Under-detection of MVP in the community might be a reason behind the low prevalence and late referral for a tertiary care management. Community-based physical screening and multicenter MVP registry are recommended.

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Incidence of anemia among pregnant women attending at primary health care center in Jazan in 2011- 2012

Rafaa Hassan Fathi , Nadiah Taher Somaili , Marwah Ibrahim Abbas , Mathab Ali Jarad, Mashael Abdullah Al Refaie , Somaia Mansour  Somaili, Rawan alharby ,seham sahli , Zainab algawee , Layla rajhi

Abstract: Anemia during pregnancy is one of the major public health problem in developing and developed country .It is a serious problem that affect negatively on mother health by increase the risk of maternal mortality, risk of infection, postpartum hemorrhage. It also affect fetus health by being born with low weight and sometime losing the fetus. So we consider the pregnant lady one of the most important member in community .We discusses one of the most risk factor that affect pregnant health.The main objective of the study is to determine the incidence of anemia among pregnant women attending primary health care center in past two years in Jazan city and Al Madaya to compare between rural and urban areas. We take 400 pregnant women from secondary data in primary health care center and cross sectional study was used by filling data to determine the incidence of anemia among pregnant women in Jazan region. These pregnant women was chosen from age 15 to 50 years old (reproductive age). We filled up the sheet containing three parts .The first part about personal data like mother’s age, mother’s occupation, mother’s weight, body mass index (BMI). The second part was about pregnancy data as follow up, number of pregnancy, number of parity, number of living children, number of abortion and using of contraceptive methods and spacing between previous and present pregnancy and baby weight. The final part about presence of anemia with the level of hemoglobin , type of anemia  ,intake of iron and folic acid supplement and history of any blood transfusion

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Knowledge of Cancer Screening among Nurses in AL-Ahasa, Saudi Arabia

Khaled Naif Alduaig, Abdulrahman A. Alsultan, Sayed Ibrahim Ali, Rahul R. Bogam

Abstract: Cancer is one of the top ten leading causes of death across the world. Nurse practitioners serve a great responsibility as the first line of contact with the patients. Appropriately trained nurses can produce as high quality care as primary care doctors and achieve as good health outcomes for patients. Research say that empowering nurses with information about early detection methods and their related benefits could help in advancing their skills in performing breast self-examination and expanding their role as client educators. The present study was undertaken to assess the knowledge of nurses in Al-Ahsa province of Saudi Arabia about cancer screening. A Cross Sectional study was conducted among 143 nurses working at various hospitals, Al-Ahsa, Kingdom Of Saudi Arabia. A self- administered questionnaire was given to all the participants and they were requested to fill up the questionnaire. The data was entered and analyzed using the SPSS statistics version 17, ANOVA and Tukey test. Only 13 (9.1%) participants had good knowledge about cancer screening with sample mean of 77.38 and standard error of 0.61. Present study revealed inadequacies in knowledge of nurses about cancer screening methods.

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Prevalence and risk of Latent Tuberculosis Infection among Internally Displaced people in Aleppo City Shelters

Alaa Almekhlef, Abdullah Khouri & Rawaa Al-Kayali

Abstract: Many factors may influence host susceptibility to tuberculosis (TB) infection, and increase the risk of developing the disease. The present study screened the residents of seven hostels to determine the prevalence of tuberculosis (TB) infection and disease among internally displaced persons residing in Aleppo City-Syrian Arab Republic and. Using a tuberculin skin test (TST) and a pretested structured questionnaire, Participation was voluntary. Approximately 5886 potential subjects, 7.1% participated in the screening program. Of these 96.6% who had a TST placed returned at 48–72 hours to have the skin test examined; The average mean age was 25 ± 17 years old, 48.6% of the TST positivity cases were male and 26.9%  were female and 29.4% were TST-positive ( ≥ 10 mm induration). In multivariate analysis, risk factors for a positive TST included  increasing age, ever having received BCG, close contact with a case of active tuberculosis, smoking and other medical conditions. Two patients with active TB were identified through this screening, giving a case rate of 494 per 100 000 population. Screening latent TB was valuable in case finding among this high prevalence population. However there is  a need to perform a similar survey on a broader scale to obtain clearer figure.

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Abdullah Abdulmohsen A. Alghunaim, Yasser Saad D. Alduraiee, Hassan Abdullah S Almogbel, Abdulaziz Abdulrahman A. Almujaydil, Abdullah Sulaiman H. ALdhuwyan, Sultan Suliman A. Alayed


Background: Osteoporosis is a worldwide health problem leading to an increased susceptibility to fractures and even more other complications. Awareness and perceptions of susceptibility and belief in the seriousness of a disease can help in its prevention and control.

Objective: this study was aimed to evaluate knowledge and perceptions of osteoporosis among Saudi population from different country regions and different educational levels.

Methodology: 986 participants from all over Saudi Arabia regions and the majority of them were from Qassim region they were involved in a self- administered online questionnaire that was conducted in September, 2015 through the period to January, 2016 and was available online and easy to access to wide group of people, to evaluate the extent of knowledge about osteoporosis among Saudi population from those different regions of the country.

Conclusion: It is important to raise the awareness and knowledge of osteoporosis and its prevention measures as osteoporosis is a preventable disease among Saudi population. Saudi Ministry of health need to determine the population’s knowledge of and attitudes towards osteoporosis to plan effective education programs to be able to avoid late complications and to safe highly cost methods of treating such a conditions.

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Knowledge and awareness of Brest Self Examination Among female schoolteachers in  AL-Qassim Region

Laila Abdulrahman Almansoor, Ghaida sayer alharbi, Faten Saleh ALAlola, Hadel Fahad Yousif AIAmmar


Objective: The main objective of this study way was to find out the knowledge and awareness of breast self examination among female schoolteachers between 30-60 year old in ALQassim region.

Methodology: Using pre-designed questionnaire was handed out to 366 female in kindergarten, primary schools, elementary schools and high schools during period of 3 April 2016 – 8 April 2016.

Result: One third of participants were aware of breast self examination (36.7%) and (44.3%) of participants whom aware of breast self examination they practicing it .

conclusion: Awareness and knowledge of BSE are low among Saudi schoolteacher in alqassim reigon .many risk factors are associated with low awareness toward BSE and its practice, i.e., younger age, awareness tools .

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Car Accidents and its relation to chronic diseases among people in Eastern province of Saudi Arabia in 2013 – 2014

Rawan Al-Bashrawi, Zahra Al-Ghanim, Lama Nasrallah, Ayat Bohlaiqa, Hala Al-Jishi, Fatima Al- Shehab, Jinan Al-Mullah, Fatima Al Nas, Hadi  Al-Mohsin, Adnan Al-Awami, Ahmed Al-Mubarak

Abstract: Car accident is the collision of one motor vehicle with another, a stationary object, or person, resulting in injuries, death and /or loss of property. It is a morbid public health condition that kills 45,000/yr in US.  We have chosen this topic to assess the health related characteristic of patients who sustained road traffic accidents (RTA) and to find the relationship between car accidents and chronic disease.

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Assessment of the knowledge and awareness of colorectal cancer among general population of Makkah: a survey based study

Ammar A Al-Maghrabi


Introduction: Cancer mortality statistics in Saudi Arabia have been significantly elevated in recent years. The Saudi Cancer Registry reported that colorectal cancer ranked among first in the male population and among third in the female population. The aim of the study is to assess the level of knowledge and awareness of colorectal cancer among the general population of Makkah residents.Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among residents of Makkah City, Saudi Arabia, in August 2016. The data were analyzed by SPSS v23.Results: A total of 385 Makkah residents answered the questionnaire. The participants’ ages ranged from 15-60 years. The majority of the participants (85.7%) had heard of colorectal cancer. However, nearly half (49.1%) of the participants had received information regarding colorectal cancer as part of their school curriculum. More than half of the students (53.5%) recognized that colorectal cancer can start without any obvious symptoms. More than one-third (37.9%) of participants believed that men are more likely than women to suffer from colorectal cancer, while almost one-third (29.4%) said they knew nothing about the symptoms, and 21.8% thought that men and women have an equal chance of contracting colorectal cancer. Regarding screening, nearly all participants (92.2%) had never had an early screening for tumors of the colon and rectum. Only 3.6% answered that they had undergone such screening.

Conclusion: The findings of this study revealed the knowledge and awareness of colorectal cancer’s symptoms, influential factors, and screening among residents of Makkah City, Saudi Arabia. The results were variable, but overall knowledge was low. More efforts are needed to increase knowledge of one of the most common cancers in Saudi Arabia. 

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Addiction to Social Media among Students at Jazan University
Sharifa M. Khormi, Maymounah A. Ageel, Shaima Y. Otayf, Hanan A. Al-shafai, Salwa M. Majrashi, Nada M. Hakami

Abstract: Addiction to social networking sites (SNSs) is becoming an increasingly prevalent. The impact of SNSs among students is of particular concern. The main aim of this study is to ascertain the rate of social media addiction among students at Jazan University and to observe its various effects. In February 2016, a structured, Arabic, self-reporting survey was administered to Applied Health Sciences students at Jazan University. Data were analysed using IBM SPSS 16 using frequency count and simple percentages. The study finds that social media addiction is highly prevalent at the university across students. The result revealed that’s students should learn how to minimize their time on social networking to improve and promote learning their activities.

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Mesenteric Lymphangioma In A Neonate With Spontaneous Regression: Case Report

Mohammed Alhuwaykim, Hussain Binamir, Ayman Ali Alhwaykem, Fatimah Abdulkareem Bin Amer

Abstract: Lymphangiomas are benign congenital hamartomas of the lymphatic system. They are preferentially located in the head, neck, and axilla in children. The incidence is estimated to be 1:20,000 in children. Abdominal cystic lymphangiomas are more frequent in boys. They account for 5-6% of all benign tumors in children and only 10% occurring in the abdomen. They are usually discovered incidentally. We, herewith, present a case of a female neonate who has been diagnosed antenatally with a cystic mass in the abdomen. After delivery, imaging studies including abdominal ultrasonography and computed tomography revealing a diagnosis of mesenteric lymphangioma in the right upper quadrant. They revealed a well-defined cystic mass which was hypoattentuating, mutli-loculated, deformable, multiseptated cystic and solid mass, measuring 6.35×5cm. The lymphangioma has regressed remarkably without any intervention. Based in this case, close observation and tight clinical follow up of such cases can be recommended.

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Comparison of physical activity between sedentary & non-sedentary lifestyles on cardiovascular health in adult male and female Gulf co-operative Council (GCC) country nationals

Abdulkarim Al-Raddadi, Abdulaziz Al-Anazi, Fahad Al-Ruwaili, Othman Al-Amouidi, Turki Khalid Al-Qhatani, Abdullah Al-Khaldi, Feisal Subhan

Abstract: cardiovascular disease (CVD) and associated risk factors have been noted across ethnic groups both within and between countries. In GCC countries, physical inactivity, high diet intake & metabolic syndromes make the prevalence of CVD higher than any other country in the Middle East. Aim: to compare the levels of physical activity between sedentary and non-sedentary adult male and female Gulf co-operative Council (GCC) country nationals and study its effect on their cardiovascular health.
Methodology: A cross- sectional study involving 100 subjects among GCC to compare of physical activity between sedentary & non-sedentary lifestyles on cardiovascular health in healthy adult male and female Gulf co-operative Council (GCC) country nationals.
Result: The major finding in this study was that subjects with a positive history of cardiovascular disease had significantly less physical activity levels relative to negative CVD history subjects. Likewise, subjects with a negative history of cardiovascular disease showed significantly more moderate physical activity levels relative to positive CVD history subjects. Therefore there is strong negative relationship between physical activity and cardiovascular disease history in our subjects. Our study also showed a gender difference in physical activity. Males had lower physical activity than females, using the IPAQ data analysis. Our data also showed that subjects with a history of unhealthy diet showed lower physical activity levels relative to healthy diet subjects.
Conclusion: we found the major points were that our subjects with a positive history of cardiovascular disease had significantly less physical activity levels relative to subjects with no history of cardiovascular disease and that subjects with a history of unhealthy diet showed lower physical activity levels relative to healthy diet subjects.

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