IJASR Volume 5 – Issue 2, February – June 2017 Edition
All listed papers are published after full consent of respective author or co-author(s).
For any discussion on research subject or research matter, the reader should directly contact to undersigned authors.
Alanine Amino Transferase (ALT) Among Blood Donors Visiting King Abdulaziz Medical City Blood Donor Center
Salem Alshimemeri, Mohammed Alshareef, Mohammed Sambas, Abdulrahman Alshareef, Waleed Tamimi
Purpose: to determine Alanine Amino Transferase (ALT) level among blood donors visiting King Abdulaziz Medical City blood donor center.Patients and methods: This is a cross-sectional study where 434 blood samples that were serologically negative of Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, HIV, HTLV, and Syphilis were taken from 434 seemingly healthy blood donors and were tested for ALT level.Results: The mean age of the donors was 30.1 + 8.6 years. The mean weight was 84.1 + 16.6 kg. The mean Hb level was 15.54 + 1.24 g/dl. The mean ALT level was 32.76 + 23.24 U/L. The median ALT level was 26.00 and the 95th percentile was 69. 25 while the 5th percentile was 12.00. Out of the 434 donors, 51 (11.8%) had an ALT level higher than 55 U/L which is normal upper limit at our hospital’s lab. The mean weight for donors with normal ALT was significantly lower than those with ALT >55 U/L (83.4 + 16.8 vs 89.7 + 14.2 U/L respectively, and p-value = 0.01).Conclusion: The study has found an association between weight and ALT level. We recommend reviewing the normal range of ALT. Also, we recommend screening overweight people for subclinical liver disease specifically non-alcoholic fatty liver disease NAFLD.
Keywords: ALT, Saudi Arabia, Weight, Blood Donor, liver disease
The Perceptions and Attitudes of Saudi Internet Users toward the Practice of Plastic Surgery
Saud M. Alfayez, Ahmed B. Al-Harbi, Yousef T. Al-Mana, Mohammad M. Al-Qattan
An electronic survey about plastic surgery which includes the demographic data and questions related to the specialty was distributed randomly, through the internet, among Saudi males and females from various age groups and educational backgrounds. The study was conducted in King Saud University from August 2012 to December 2015.A total of 416 males and 588 females completed the questionnaire. The age ranged from 14 to 57 years. People younger than thirty years old had a significantly less exposure to plastic surgeries (3.7%) compared to people who were forty years old and above (17.5%) (p<0.001). The type of surgery differed significantly between genders as 81.8% of females underwent cosmetic procedures compared to 50% of males (p=0.011). Participants with high financial income had a higher rate of cosmetic procedures and were more receptive to its concept. The majority (59.5%) were against cosmetic surgery due to mostly religious beliefs (80.6%). The media and internet were the two main sources of plastic surgery information for 37.1% and 29.7% of participants respectively.
Keywords – plastic surgery, attitude; media, cosmetic, reconstructive
Development and Validation of Spectrophotometric Method for Determination of Moxifloxacin HCL in Bulk and
Rana M. W. Kazan, Hassan Seddik, Mahmoud Aboudane
A Simple, rapid, and sensitive spectrophotometric method was developed for the determination of a fluoroquinolone antibiotic: moxifloxacin hydrochloride (MXF), in pure forms and pharmaceutical formulations. This method is based on the formation of ion-pair complex between the basic drug (MXF), and acid dye; bromocresol green (BCG). The formed complex was measured at 430 nm by using chloroform as solvent. The analytical parameters and their effects are investigated. Beer’s law was obeyed in the range of 0.803 – 12.846 µg/mL, with correlation coefficient R2 = 0.9999. The average recovery of Moxifloxacin was between 98.35 and 102.80%. The limit of detection was 9.3 ng/mL and limit of quantification was 27.9 ng/mL. The proposed method has been successfully applied to the analysis of the studied drugs in pure forms and pharmaceutical formulations.
Keywords: fluoroquinolone; Moxifloxacin; bromocresol green; Spectrophotometer; pharmaceutical formulations.
Correlation between CRP, Albumin and obesity- a systematic review
Sumaia Radi, Abdulmalik Altaf, Noura Eid
Obesity is a chronic condition characterised by an accumulation of body fat. It is rapidly becoming an emerging disease in developed and developing countries due to the increasing westernisation of societies and change in the lifestyle. The aetiology of obesity is multifactorial, with a combination of genetic and environmental factors. There are three levels of obesity management: lifestyle modification (diet, physical activity and behaviour change), pharmacotherapy and bariatric surgery. Bariatric surgery is accepted nowadays as the most effective tool in the treatment and control of morbid obesity. Several studies have shownpre- and post-operative nutritional deficiency in obese patients. Additionally, Obesity is a chronic low grade inflammation state which lead to increase in C-Reactive Protein (CRP) and many nutrient deficiencies such as Serum albumin (SA). SA has been frequently used as an index of protein status and has been shown to correlate with risk for surgical complications and mortality.Little research has linked obesity and hypoalbuminaemia. In this review, we want to see whether there is a relation between morbidly obese patients, hypoalbuminaemia and CRP.
Keywords: CRP, Hypoalbuminaemia, Inflammation, Obesity, Protein.
A new Spectrophotometric Method for Determination of Moxifloxacinwith 1-(2-hydroxyphenylazo)-2,7-dihydroxynaphthalene in Bulk and Pharmaceutical Formulations
Rana M. W. Kazan Hassan Seddik, Mahmoud Aboudane
Moxifloxacin hydrochloride (MXF) is a fourth generation fluoroquinolonebroad spectrumantibiotic agent used in conjunctivitis. A new, simple, rapid, and sensitive spectrophotometric method was developed for the determination of a (MXF). This method is based on the formation of ion-pair complex between the basic drug (MXF), and new dye;1-(2-hydroxyphenylazo)-2,7-dihydroxy naphthalene (HPN). The formed complex was measured at 530 nm by using chloroform as solvent. The analytical parameters and their effects are investigated. Beer’s law was obeyed in the rangeof0.161 – 12.043 µg/mL, with correlation coefficient R2 = 0.9998. The average recovery of Moxifloxacinwas between 98.14and 101.09 %. The limit of detection was 11.60ng/mL and limit of quantification was 35.16ng/mL. The proposed method has beensuccessfully appliedto the analysis of the studied drugs in pure forms and pharmaceutical formulations.
Keywords: Moxifloxacinhydrochloride; Spectrophotometer; pharmaceutical formulations.
Synthesis of novel compounds from Harmine (β-carboline derivatives) isolated from Syrian Peganum Harmala L. Seeds
Rasha Khodair, IbrahimDa’aboul, RakanBarhoum
In the present work, we report the synthesis and structural characterizations of new β-carboline derivatives of harmine isolated from Syrian Harmala Seeds (Peganum harmala L.)collectedfrom The Syrian Desert Area (Palmyra desert).Series of harmine derivatives were designed and synthesized via modification of position- 9 of β-carboline nucleusWe imployed three amino acids (L-Lysine, L-Ornithine, L-Alanine) to form amide bonds with Harmine skeleton;NH2-groups in amino acids were protected by Boc-group.Therafter, TFA in 40% DCM was used to removeBoc-group. Thenew synthesized compounds and protected amino acids were purified bycolumn chromatographyand recrystallized. We characterized these new compounds and protected amino acids by utilizing spectroscopic technics (IR, LC-MS,GC-MS,1H-NMR and 13C-NMR). The yields ofnovel synthesized compounds and protected amino acids are in high percentage78.80%, 72.73%,85.32%, 84.33%, 81.63% and 91.85% of IIId (compound1),IIIe (compound2), IIIf(compound3),IIIa, IIIb and IIIc, respectively.
Keywords: Harmine; new β-carboline derivatives; synthesis;Boc; L-Lysine; L-Ornithine; L-Alanine; Syrian Harmala Seeds.
Correlation of CRP and hypoalbuminemia with morbid obesity: retrospective study at KAUH, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
Sumaia Radi, Noura Eid,Abdulmalik Altaf
Background:Obesity is a chronic low-grade inflammation state which lead to increase in C-Reactive Protein (CRP) and many nutrient deficiencies such as Serum albumin (SA). Bariatric surgery is accepted nowadays as the most effective tool in the treatment and control of morbid obesity. Low SA has been shown to correlate with risk for surgical complications and mortality. Aim: Toassess the correlation between obese patients, hypoalbuminaemia and CRP.Methods: The medical record of 165patients who suffers from obesity and were advised to undergo bariatric surgery at King Abbdulaziz University hospital (KAUH) during 2010 until 2017were examined. CRP and SA were measured using standard methods. Result:165 patients were studied. There were 44 males (26.66%) and 121 were females (73.33%) with a mean age of 38 years (range 18-62). 50 patients (30.30% of all patients and 32.26% of patients who had pre-operative albumin assessment) had hypoalbuminemia and 105 patients (63.63% of all patients and 67.74 % of patients who had pre-operative albumin assessment) had normal albumin level. 27 patients (16.36% of all patients and 78.1% of patients who had pre-operative CRP assessment) had high CRP and 4 patients (2.42% of all patients and 12.9% of patients who had pre-operative CRP assessment)) had normal CRP.There was no significant correlation between BMI and CRP but BMI was significantly lower in patients who have normal CRP level compared with those who have high CRP level. There was a trend for a negative correlation between CRP and albumin (r = -0.300, p = 0.10). BMI is significantly negatively correlated with albumin level (r = -0.219, p < 0.02). Albumin level is significantly negatively correlated with age. CRP level is strongly significantly positively correlated with lymphocytes percentage (r =0.826, p <0.02).Conclusion:In conclusion, our study found an increase in the inflammatory status (as indicated by CRP) and in lymphocyte percentage, whereas albumin levels were decreased in association with obesity and high BMI.
Keywords: CRP, Hypoalbuminaemia, Inflammation, Obesity, Protein.
[Download] 77 – 85
The Educational level and vaccination knowledge among parents in Dawadmi-Saudi Arabia, 2014.
Ibrahim Alenazi, Fayez Alruwaili, Abdullah Aljumayi, Abdulelah Alqahtani, Abdullah AlGhamedi, Hammad Alsaad, Mohammad Alharbi, Abdullah Alnakhli, Khaled Alsuhaibani, Bahaa Fetiha
Background: vaccinations are important to our children and their health. Parents’ knowledge about the importance of vaccination is affected by many factors, one of them is the level of education. There are some parents does not know about the benefit of vaccination and they vaccinate their children because it’s mandatory. Objectives: The aim of the study is to assess the knowledge of parents about vaccination in 2014 in Dawadmi city, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and its relationship to the educational level. Methodology: Across-sectional study to assess the relation between parents’ educational level and their knowledge about vaccination using a questionnaire in Arabic and English forms. Results: A total of 343 parents were included in the final analysis. The study shows an increasing in parents’ knowledge with increasing their education level. 91.9% of university educated parents, 72.6% of primary or secondary educated parents and 45.5% of parents who read and write are known that the vaccination prevents disease. Conclusion and Recommondation: Although the vaccination knowledge considered higher in this study group, but there should be an increase in doctor recommendation and advices especially for low educated parents.
Keywords: knowledge, vaccination, Saudi Arabia
[Download] 86 – 95
A study on the Correlation between the Energy Use and Occupancy Rate of Accommodation Buildings
Haitham Alkhalaf, Wanglin Yan
ABSTRACT: Accommodation buildings are energy intensive among other commercial buildings, and it is considered as main producer of Green House Gases (GHG). On other hand, it is an important component of tourism industry in Japan. In the presented research, a study of energy performance of accommodation buildings in Kanto region- Japan carried out. The study depends on two national survey to run out this investigation. First, Database of Energy Consumption of Commercial Buildings (DECC), which is done by Japan Sustainable Building Consortium (JSBC). Second, Occupancy data of accommodation buildings, whichis conducted by Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism (MLIT). A number of factors that affect the energy use in accommodation buildings, such as building size, working hours, etc., were illustrated.
A descriptive statistical analysis was carried out to find out the relation between occupancy rate and energy use of accommodation buildings in Kanto region-Japan. The relation between different energy forms and occupancy rate was investigated considering the outdoor temperature.As a result, the trend and correlation between energy
use and occupancy was illustrated. The result of the study points out the controversial relation between energy use and occupancy rate of accommodation buildings in Kanto region-Japan.Since the considered values of R2 reported for energy consumption within period from Jun until October during the summer season, it is clear
especially for electricity and city gas consumption, but it has low value rest of the year.
Keywords: Accommodation Buildings, DECC,Energy Efficiency, Occupancy Rate
[Download] 96 – 109