March 2016 Edition

IJASR Volume 4 – Issue 1, March 2016 Edition

All listed papers are published after full consent of respective author or co-author(s).
For any discussion on research subject or research matter, the reader should directly contact to undersigned authors.

Parvovirus B19 viral infection and its incidence in Saudi Arabia

Dr. Hatem Qadhy Makhdoom

Abstract: Parvovirus B19 is a small non-enveloped single-stranded DNA virus of the family Parvoviridae and genus Erythrovirus. B19 virus is most known for causing erythema infectiosum (fifth disease) in children as well as numerous other diseases such as arthropathy in adults, Transient aplastic crisis in patients with increased erythropoiesis and persistent anemia in immunocompromised patients. Parvovirus B19 has been the topic of numerous reviews, however, not many studies have focused on B19 Virus Infection in Saudi Arabia. In this review we compile recent data on human parvovirus B19 and its Infection in Saudi Arabia.

[Download]                                                                                                        1-4


An overview on ZIKA Virus: vector Borne Disease

Khalil AL ALI, Mouhanad AL ALI

ABSTRACT: Zika virus disease is a vector borne disease transmitted by several Aedes species. This virus is now considered as emerging pathogen. zika virus infection symptoms are generally mild and can be misdiagnosed with many arboviral infections which cause fever and rash . So far, there is no vaccine or treatment available to treat patient with Zika virus infection. Furthermore, numerous studies have strongly suggested that there is an association between zika virus infection and neurological complications like Guillain – Barré syndrome. In this mini-review we compile recent data on ZIKA virus and its transmission inside and outside the African continent

[Download]                                                                                                         5-8


Sensitive Extraction-Free Spectrophotometric Methods for the Determination of Trandolapril Using Bromothymol Blue and Bromocresol Green

Amir Al-Haj Sakur, Hanan Fael

ABSTRACT: Two simple, rapid and sensitive spectrophotometric methods have been developed for the determination of trandolapril (TRP) in pure and capsules. The methods are based on the instant formation of highly yellow colored complex species between TRP and two chromogenic reagents; bromothymol blue (BTB) and bromocresol green (BCG) in acetone medium. The formed complexes were quantified spectrophotometrically at their absorption maxima at 401 and 408 for BTB and BCG, respectively. The reaction conditions were studied and optimized. Beer’s law is obeyed over TRP concentration range of 2.0 – 26.0 μg/mL for BTB and 2.0 – 30.0 μg/mL for BCG. High molar absorptivity values of 18108 M-1cm-1 and 21314 M-1cm-1 were obtained with BTB and BCG, respectively. The developed methods showed high sensitivity with very low detection and quantification limits and were validated according to the ICH guidelines. The proposed methods were successfully applied to the analysis of trandolapril in pure form and capsules with good precision and accuracy and without interference from common additives. The results obtained by the proposed methods were compared with those of reference HPLC method. The mechanism of the reaction has also been discussed.

[Download]                                                                                                      9-19


Prevalence Of Hypertension Among Patients With Renal Failure Attending Renal dialysis Unit In King Fahad Hospital Almadina Almonwarra.2012

Osama Alahmadi, Fahad Alrohily, Riyadh Alharbi, Basem Almotairy, Monther Farghali, Mohammed Halwani, Abdulrahman Alahmadi, Abdullateef Alzahrani


Background :Because of the close relationship between renal failure, diabetes and high blood pressure have built our study

Objectives :To measure prevalence of hypertension among patients attending Renal Dialysis Unit in king Fahd hospital in Al-Madina AlMonwara , 2012

Methods :Cross The study population was the patient attended to the renal dialysis department at king fahad hospital with renal filure.80 patients were from all patients entered renal unit during the study period . questionnaires was used .

Results:Most of patient’s ages that have renal failure are older than 50 years. And most of them suffer from the disease between the periods from one to five years. And 55 (62.8%) out of 25 renal failure patient were non employed .

Conclusion : the Prevalence of renal failure patients with hypertension is 29% and 9% with diabetic patients and

40 % in patient with both HTN and DM.

[Download]                                                                                                    20-30


Self medication Among Medical University Staff at Taibah University, Al-Madinah. 2012

Najla S. AL-Johani, Isra’a Eid Alsubhi, Sarah muhesen, Enas M Alsubhi, Samah A. Al-Johani, Nada M Al-Radadi, Intessar Sultan.


Objectives: this study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of self-medication among medical university staff at Taibah University and to explore the underlying causes and concerns of their self-medication.

Methods: This cross sectional study was performed using self reporting pre-coded questionnaire by 107 teaching stuff aged 44.6 ± 7.66 years. They were selected through simple randomization from colleges of medicine and allied medicine at Taibah University during the period from September to December 2012. The questionnaire included questions about frequency, characteristics, and reasons of self-diagnosis.

Results: The prevalence rate of self-medication by teaching staff was high (81.3%) and was performed commonly (33.6%), outside the clinics (75.7%), outside their specialties (54.2%), and by phone (59.8%). It was considered not risky by 24.3%. It was performed for common symptoms e.g, flu and headache (83.2%), musculoskeletal pains (38.3 %) , abdominal pain and change in bowel habits (21.5 %). Antibiotics and Antipyretics were the most commonly prescribed medications (57%). The main reasons for self medication included mild symptoms (47.7%), lack of time (27.1%) and self-confidence (14%). Self medication was avoided by 62.6% for multiple concerns and by 21.5% for crtaein people. Teaching staff who practiced self –medication had increased probability to be from college of medicine (5.03 odds, 95% CI of 1.80 – 13.99, p= 0.001).

Conclusion: Self-medication of drugs for common symptoms was prevalent among teaching staff of medicine with some restrictions. The results of the present study supported the impact of medical practice on self-medication; however there are some concerns about the safety of such practice.

[Download]                                                                                                    31-37


Prevalence of Obesity Among Male intermediate School students in Al-Madina at 2015

Ahmed Khalid Ali, Hatim Al-rehaily, Rayan Al-logmani, Khaled al-Malki, Ahmed Al-Sayed, Rayan Abdullah


Background : Obesity in children and adolescents is a serious issue with many health and social consequences that continue into adulthood.

Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of obesity among male intermediate school students aged 12-15 years in al-Madina and To determine the relationship between BMI and life style factors among them

Methods: The study is a school-based cross-sectional study with self-administrated questionnaires. It was collected from intermediate school male students in Al-Madinah,2015.The Population was 32044 students (aged 12- 15 year-old).The study was involving 399 students using cluster random sampling technique. Measurements included B.M.I, weight and height.

Results: Our study reveals that the prevalence of obesity was 20.3% . The lowest percentage (2.5% ) were from first intermediate grade student while the highest percentage (10.8% ) were from third intermediate grade student.

It shows that most of the obese live in their own home. We did not find a direct relation between other diseases and the occurrence of obesity; this may refer to the age of the subjects.

The opinions of our subjects regarding to the cause of obesity mostly was fast food (12.5%) .

Conclusion: our study showed a high magnitude of obesity and related significant factors starting from sport activities and ending in parents education.

[Download]                                                                                                    38-48


Obesity among medical lecturers and their staff in Taibah University

Mohamed.M.Alfagi, Salim.A.Islam, Abdullah.A.Aljehani, Omar.M.Alabbasi, Ahmed.Khalid.Ali, Mishari M Al-Rashidi, Majid Zaal Albluwi


Background : Obesity is assuming an epidemic dimension globally. It is important to appreciate factors associated with the disease so that a holistic approach can be taken in tackling the rising burden. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity and the factors associated with obesity .

Objectives :to determine the prevalence of obesity among medical lecturers and to examine the relationship between the sociodemographic variables ( food bad habits .. physical activity .. psychological effects ) and obesity.

Methodology : This was a descriptive cross-sectional study carried out in Taibah university in Madinah .Subjects were consecutively recruited using simple random sampling and the size of the sample was 35 medical lecturers .

Results :

The study found that The percentage of Overweight and Obesity were more than 75% . However, in multivariate analysis, factors independently associated with obesity were obesity among mother (P = 0.014 ) , number of meals per day (P = 0.006 ) and physical activity (P = 0.031 ) .

Conclusion :The number of obese medical lecturers is significantly high . Therefore, obesity is becoming a public health problem . Our government should pay attention to the increasing prevalence of obesity in Saudi Arabia by establishing centers to control obesity . Lowering the total calorie intake is an important first step to promote weight loss. Also Exercise offers many health benefits , it helps people burn more calories .

[Download]                                                                                                    49-55


Investigating the Relationship between Serum Leptin levels and Insulin Resistance in Poly Cystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) Patients

Marfan Mohammad, Ashraf Olabi, Raghda Lahdo

ABSTRACT: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder affecting 5 -10% of women and is a major cause of anovulatory infertility. Etiology of PCOS remains unknown but hyperandrogenism and chronic anovulation have both been associated with PCOS. Insulin resistance, abdominal obesity have also been frequently associated with PCOS. Abdominal adipose tissue is a source of leptin; however, the role of leptin in the pathogenesis of PCOS is unclear. The current study aimed to investigate the relationships between serum leptin levels with insulin resistance and anthropometric measures in patients diagnosed with PCOS attending Aleppo gynecology university hospital. We analyzed differences between 46 patients with PCOS and 25 healthy control subjects with the same range of age- and body mass index (BMI). Related parameters were measured for both groups: serum glucose, leptin and insulin levels, waist to hip ratio, BMI, Waist circumference, and HOMA-IR. We found that, 67% of PCOS patients have Insulin resistance, with significant correlation between PCOS and Insulin resistance (P<0.05), Serum leptin levels was significantly correlated with basal insulin levels, BMI and HOMA-IR in both groups (P<0.05). The levels of fasting leptin, insulin, waist circumference and HOMA-IR were significantly higher in the PCOS group in comparison with the control group (p<0.05). Increased leptin levels in PCOS patients is independently associated with insulin resistance.

[Download]                                                                                                   56-65


Investigating The Single Nucleotide Polymorphism A1166C in Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Gene and Its Association with Hypertension in Patients in Syria

Alaa Sabbagh, Mohammad Yaser Abajy

ABSTRACT: There are reported associations between a polymorphism of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AGTR.1/A1166C) gene and hypertension in some populations. To determine if the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) A1166C in AGTR.1 is associated with hypertension in Aleppo, we recruited twenty-eight patients with hypertension and thirty-five healthy subjects as the control group. The AGTR.1 polymorphism was assessed using a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) based method. Results: The genotypic frequency of AA was 88.9%, that for AC was 11.1% and no CC type was detected. There was no significant difference in genotype and allele frequencies between hypertensive and non-hypertensive patients (p>0.05). Our results indicated that AGTR.1 A/C1166 polymorphism was not associated with hypertension in Syrian population.

[Download]                                                                                                     66-75


The Concept of Time and History in Conrad’s Heart of Darkness


Abstract: This study is based on the presupposed premise that time and the continuation of time, i.e. history, are fluid, allowing for periodic shifts on the scale of evolution and civilization.

In this study, Conrad’s Heart of Darkness, is looked at as a representative of the spectrum of history showing that at the time of the Roman Empire, Rome was considered a “civilized” nation, while England was seen as a “barbaric” country, just as in the time of the British empire,the English see themselves in their civilized “present” looking to the Africans as “barbaric”. And just like the Roman civilization has declined, the implication is that the English empire will face the same fate and another nation will rise. However, these periods of great achievement in every nation’s history, of which they are proud, come at a cost, often at the cost of another nation’s wealth and labor. Heart of Darknes sex poses the double standard of imperialism, where the economic reasons of imperialism are twisted into moral virtues of enlightenment and progress,showing the discrepancy between imperialism’s rhetoric and its harsh realities

[Download]                                                                                                      76-81


Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices towards Family Planning among Saudi Female Teachers in Al-Madinah Al-Munawarah City, Saudi Arabia

Mashael Mohammad Alharbi, Mashael Safran Alharbi, Alanood Alnazzawi, Raghad Albasri, Maha Al Towairqi, Sumaya Shaikh, Wejdan Alamri, Amal Almohammadi, Dareen  Aljohanie, Ayat Abdallah


Back ground: Changes in Saudi Arabian community especially in woman education mace them more aware about fertility, family planning and contraceptive use. This study aims to assess knowledge, attitudes, and practices towards family planning among female teachers in Al-Madinah Al-Munawarah city in Saudi Arabia.

Methods: A cross sectional study has been conducted over a cluster sample of Saudi female teacher in governmental schools in Al-Madinah Al-Munawarah city, where a structured questionnaire covering research objectives was developed and distributed over participants.

Results: This study has been conducted over 300 female teachers, 59.7% were of age group ranging from 36 – 45 years old. One hundred and nineteen teachers were having no or less than 4 children, while 181 were having 4 or more children. Significant differences (p<0.05) have been found between those having no or less than 4 children and those having 4 or more children regarding age, marital status, educational level, perceived socioeconomic standard, knowledge of the presence of contraception, and thought that long term use of contraceptive pills could cause sterility. Only one third or less of participants answered correctly over questions related contraception and contraceptive methods, 63.7% reported need for more health education regarding contraceptives, and 46.6% of preferred health centers as source of information. The majority tended to perform family planning (88%), 76.3% reported current use of contraceptives, and 43% reported side effects to used contraceptive method.

Conclusion: This study results revealed limited knowledge of contraceptive methods, high intention to use contraceptives, and average use of contraceptives among studied population.

[Download]                                                                                                   82-92


Prevalence of Depression among Medical Students at Taibah University, Madinah, Saudi Arabia

Saud A. Sultan, Abdulaziz A. Alhosaini, Shahad A. Sheerah, Amjad A. Alrohaily, Hosam M. Saeed, Nuha M. Al-Raddadi, Mohammed S. Halawani, Mohammed A. Shaheen, Ayman Y. Turkistani, Hasan Taha, Moaz Alahmadi, Abdulelah kashkary.



Background: The medical students are frequently under psychological pressure which makes them more prone to develop physical and mental problems including depression. Few studies investigated its prevalence in Saudi Arabia.

Objectives: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of depression and to hypothesize risk factors influencing this problem among Taibah University medical students, Madinah, Saudi Arabia.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at Taibah College of medicine, Madinah, Saudi Arabia. The study recruited all medical students registered during the study year 2013/14. A self-administered electronic questionnaire was completed by 555 students during the month of May 2014. Detailed information was collected from the students through a well designed structured questionnaire including PQ-2 instrument for depression screening. The prevalence of depression was estimated, and appropriate statistical analyses were performed to compare the prevalence by students’ characteristics.

Results: The response rate was 92.5% (555 out of 600 students). The overall prevalence of depression was 28.3% (95% CI= 24.5%-32.1%). The prevalence was significantly high among male (31.6%) and single students (33.6%). Students reported eating one meal per day, taking energy drinks and use stimulant drugs showed also significant high prevalence. The prevalence was significantly high among students with associated medical problems, particularly back pain (60%), hypertension (55%) and bronchial asthma (47.5%). Sleeping related factors appeared to influence the prevalence of depression among the studied students where prevalence was high among those reported less sleeping hours, use of sleeping medications and those spent > 2 hours in bed before sleeping.

Conclusion: The study revealed a considerable high prevalence of depression and hypothesized a variety of influencing factors among the studied medical students. These findings urge the faculty administration to increase awareness among the students and to encourage more studies to implement effective preventive and counseling services.

[Download]                                                                                                   93-102


The Prevalence of Stethoscopes Contamination at Tertiary Center in AL Madinah Almonawwarah Saudi Arabia 2015

Abrar Nasser D Maqsud, Afra Salman Alsuhaymi, Khulood Yahya Fallatah, Khulood Abdullah Al-johany, Mawaddah Hasan Sabr, Waad Saleh Alharbi, Wala Saleh Albeladi

College of Medicine, Taibah University, KSA


The stethoscope is a popular instrument used to assess the health of patients and have been reported to be potential vectors for nosocomial infections in various parts of the world . Little published data are available about the prevalence of stethoscope contamination in kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The aim of this study is to shed some light on this important issue in one of tertiary health care facilities in Madinah city, Saudi Arabia.

[Download]                                                                                                 103-110


Self Medication Among Medical Students,

Mawaddah Alfouti, Bashaer Alrehaili, Safanah ALshinqity, Tahani Alharbi, Marim AlAtowi Aljehani, Aisha Alshanqity, Hind Alharbi, Afnan Alfridy, Duaa Abdulqader, and Shaima Alshanqiti


Background: Self medication is a growing phenomena; especially among economically deprived communities and medical students.

Objective: To identify the pattern of self medication among medical students, Taibah University, Al-Madinah, Saudi Arabia 2013.

Methods: A cross sectional survey was carried out in the medical college; male and female sections, Al Madinah , Taibah University, Saudi Arabia 2013 including 188 students. Multistage sampling technique was used. Data was collected using a specially designed pretested self applied questionnaire in English form.

Results: The mean percent score for meaning of self-medication was 72.9 ±19.75, the adherence to drug pamphlet mean percent score was 42.0± 21.85. 55.3% significantly determined the dose through pamphlet (p=0.047). Selection of a drug depends on experience (54.8%), previous knowledge from study (53.2%), relatives ‘advise (28.7%) and severity of pain (27.7%). The most frequent complaints encountered in self-medication were headache (76.6%), fever (61.2%), common cold (60.4%), and sore throat (50.0%).Panadol (90.1%), ibuprofen (86.2%), antihistamincs (35.1%) and vitamins (32.4%) were the most frequently utilized self-medications.

Conclusion: Self-medication is prevalent phenomena among medical students. Medical students have insufficient knowledge regarding meaning of self-medication and calculation of dose. Panadol and Ibuprofen were the most frequently used medications. Headache, common cold, cough, and abdominal pain were the mostly listed complaints for self-medication. The prior experience, saving time and money, minor illness were the stated causes for self-medication.

[Download]                                                                                                  111-120


Michigan Diabetes Knowledge Test: translation and validation study of the Arabic version

Loai Al Qahtani, Abdulaziz Alqarni, Mohamud S. Mohamud, Emad Masuadi, Mohammed Aldhubayee

ABSTRACT: The quality of life and patients’ self-management is crucial for planning and maintaining a system of patient-centered care. To our knowledge, there have been no valid, reliable, and well conducted translation into Arabic to assess diabetes knowledge of patients with diabetes mellitus. The aim of this study was to translate and validate the Michigan Diabetes Knowledge Test (MDKT) into the Arabic language, and to examine the psychometric properties of the Arabic version. A total of 90 patients were interviewed in the primary care center. The results showed good internal consistency , cronbach’s alpha = 0.60. The results showed that Arabic version of MDKT is reliable and valid tool for assessing patients’ knowledge about DM

[Download]                                                                                                 121-125


The Influence of Role Models on Choosing a Medical Specialty in KAMC-Riyadh

Khalid Alharbi, Abdulkhaliq Ibrahim S Alhifzi


Objectives: To identify the interns and R1 residents’ role model choice and its effect on choosing their medical specialty and career outcome.

Methods: A questionnaire was developed by South Carolina University professors. We took permission for conducting the same study on our R1 and interns in KAMC-Riyadh. The questionnaire was modified and translated. The questionnaire has closed ended questions.All data was entered in Excel and then were analyzed using SPSS.

Results: The Study had a participation of 80 individual, 61 of which were males and the remaining 19 were females. A total of 45 individuals out of the 80 have a physician role model, 29 of the 45 decided to choose the same career specialty as their role models. 64.4% of the 45 who have physician role models had chosen the same career specialty as their recognized role models, the remaining haven’t got influenced by their respective role models to choose their career specialty.

Conclusion : 64.4% of the medical graduates who have physician role models had chosen the same career specialty as their recognized role models, the remaining haven’t got influenced by their respective role models to choose their career specialty.

[Download]                                                                                                 126-129


A case of Behecet’s Disease in pregnancy

Majid zaal Al-Bluwi, Amal Salman Al-Saedi


Behcet’s disease is a chroinc multisystem relapsing disorder that affect the mucocutaneous surface . Though it is rare in pregnancy , One should keep the possibility of this rare disease in mind when pregnant pateint with rash and genital ulcers is seen. We wish to share our experince of managing a woman who was diagnosed as having Behcet’s disease when she was 16 – year-old .

[Download]                                                                                                 130-131


Knowledge of Al Jouf University students about hypertension

Abdulelah M Alruwaili, Sulaiman S. Almuthri, Abdulaziz A. Alkuwaykibi, Anas A. Alnasiri, Mamdouh A. Alsirhani , Muteb Hassan D. almarwani


Hypertension is one of the most crucial health problems and the most common chronic disease in developed and underdeveloped countries. The rate of hypertension and its complications are decreasing in developed countries whereas it is increasing in developing countries. This study aimed to evaluate students’ awareness, expectations, beliefs and knowledge about hypertension in Saudi Arabia.

[Download]                                                                                                   132-134


Public Awareness of Risk Factors, Screening and Prevention of Colorectal Cancer

Hassan Bukhari, Mohammed Mirza , Fahad Ghazi Almatrafi, Ebtisam Fahad Alqhtani, Ahmad Khald Yamani, Fatemah Mohammed Sabiani, Muteb Hassan Almarwani, Ahmad E. Algamdi, Riyadh G. Alzhrani , Bilal H. Felmban, Osama S. alamry, Wurud Abrahim Z. Alwabsh, Riyadh Jamaan A. Alzahrani, Eiman Mohammed Falatah


Background/Aims: Cancer screening is a national health priority, especially for colorectal cancer. Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most common malignancy in the Saudi population, with an increasing incidence over the past 20 years [1].The aim of this study was Assess public awareness of risk factors, screening and prevention of colorectal cancer among general population in Makkah city in order to identify group of people that need more education and screen program.

Setting and Design:The research will be a part of a cross-sectional study conducted a survey by using a questionnaire.

Patients and Methods:Random, healthy individuals from Makkahcity Saudi Arabia, were approached to participate in questions multiple choice survey about CRC. Data were analyzed by demographic criteria, including age, gender, marital status, level of education, and occupation to determine if members of these groups displayed differential knowledge.

Statistical Analysis:Differences in responses by demographic data were analyzed using descriptive statistics relationship between two variable using crosstab.

Results:In total, 371 participants completed the survey. Most respondents no hear about early screening of Colorectal (52%),and 86% not have done screened of colorectalcancer. 60% no know where the place of colorectal cancer is screening. They assess subjectively their Level of knowledge about colorectal cancer 53% poor, 37% good and 10% excellent. Highest percentage for education level about Public awareness for colorectal cancer universal by 45% and lowest unlettered by 4% which varied significantly according to level of education. About 6 from 11 diagnosed with Colorectal Cancer and have a family history of Colorectal Cancer.

Conclusions:Most of people consider their information poor about screening of colorectal cancer althoughthose with higher education tended to answer questions correctly more often, there were some misconceptions regarding universally accepted screening protocols, symptoms, and general understanding of CRC in Saudi Arabia. A national education/screening program in Saudi Arabia is recommended to improve CRC knowledge.

[Download]                                                                                                 135-140


Usefulness of Electrocardiographic QT Interval to Predict Left Ventricular Diastolic Dysfunction

Abdulla Samman , Mahmoud Malhis


Over time, heart failure with normal systolic function constituted a real health problem of worldwide morbidity and mortality. Despite the paucity of research focused on, Echocardiography with Doppler imaging is an easy and accurate method for the diagnosis of this syndrome. In this study, we select 75 patients complaining of symptoms of dyspnea and lower limbs swelling, unexplained by obvious cause. Then, we linked the ultrasound findings with the electrical parameters and processed it at statistical method. After that, we enrolled 100 patients at the radiology department, respectively and randomly, and then we concluded in the same order after deeply processing it with statistic programs. There was a significant statistical correlation between the corrected QT interval and the presence of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction. Therefore, it can be considered that the corrected QT interval is an independent predictor of the left ventricle diastolic function.

[Download]                                                                                                141-149


Students’ opinions about their preparation for clinical fixed prosthodontics practice at a Dental School

Mubarak Khalid, Samah Saker


PURPOSE: This cross-sectional study aimed to assess teaching staff and their students’ perceptions regarding the students’ competency for clinical performance following the preclinical fixed prosthodontics course and their suggestion regarding alternative methods to improve the preclinical training.

METHODS: Fourth- and fifth-year dental students and their teaching staff participated in a survey about the difficulty that faced the student during transitional period from preclinical fixed prosthodontic training to clinical   context at Taibah Dental School. A well-constructed Questionnaire, designed to evaluate the students’ perceptions regarding the students’ competency for clinical performance following the preclinical fixed prosthodontics course and their suggestion regarding alternative methods to improve the preclinical training. The response to the questionnaire was based on the five-point Likert scale. Medians, frequencies were used to assess their perception on preclinical training and suggestion.

RESULTS: A total of 78 students from 90 respond .The survey response was 87%;   and 100% for the staff members (9 participants). 46% of the students thought that the four-handed dentistry system is not improving their quality of work and 46% felt that the academic staff were cooperative in helping them.56% of the academic staff members believed that the duration of the preclinical training is sufficient. 78% thought that the theoretical part is closely related to the preclinical training sessions.

CONCLUSIONS: The feeling of confidence to start clinical phase felt students and their teaching staff members should be kept and reinforced by improving the positives aspects of the results and to resolve the negativities assigned.

[Download]                                                                                                 150-156


Comparison of Breast and Colorectal Cancer Screening Programs in the Netherlands and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Feras Ghazi Alhazmi

ABSTRACT: This paper presents a comparative analysis of breast and colorectal cancer screening programs in the Netherlands and Saudi Arabia. To examine the differences in screening programs in both countries, a qualitative methodology was used, consisting of extensive desk research and review of secondary literature on the subject matter as well as primary sources such as screening program brochures and ministerial websites. A framework was developed based upon which both types of cancer were analyzed in both countries according to the following dimensions: Prevalence of disease, set-up and implementation of existing screening programs, and effectiveness of screening. The analysis showed that unlike in the Netherlands, in Saudi Arabia there is a lack of a truly population-based screening model for both breast and colorectal cancer. Furthermore, it would be advisable to establish clear implementation structures and systems for evaluation and monitoring of existing programs.

[Download]                                                                                                 157-165


Analysis of congenital cardiac anomalies among neonates in Maternal and Child health hospital of Sakaka Aljouf region (A four year review)

Abdullah Hamed Alfalah, Abdulaziz Fallaj  Alkuwaykib, Abdulrahman Mashatil Alruwaili, Kasseb Mohammed Aba-alwakel

Introduction: In 2008, a study was done by Heron showed that the leading cause of death in infants was the congenital malformations that constitute a huge social and economic burden to the community and the state. In a study that was done in Al-Qassim 316 patients were diagnosed to have congenital heart diseases of 58,908. In the Southwestern region, 608 children patients were referred to Asir central hospital complaining of congenital heart diseases. The children were examined by the pediatric cardiologist using electrocardiogram and echocardiogram. Amongst them, only was only 335 cases. The males were 162 and females were 173 which suffered from CHD.

Objective: The goal of this study an analysis of the CHD and other congenital anomalies among newborns in Sakaka in the last 4 years (11/1431 since prior data were not available to end of 1434h). Methodology: Researchers reviewed medical records of Neonatal Intensive care unit (NICU) of Maternity & Children Hospital (MCH) in Sakaka from the year 1431 to 1434. Data regarding congenital heart diseases was obtained by reviewing the information available on the Medical Information System (MIS), records of medical files and the NICU logs.

Results: Examining the records of 940 infants from the NICU in the specified period, we found 80 cases with congenital diseases constituting an incidence of 85/1000 live births that are very high compared to international incidences. Among those, 34 cases showed CHD (13 males and 21 were females) constituting an incidence of 36.17/1000 live births that is very high compared to international incidences.

[Download]                                                                                                 166-173


Lipid and Glucose Profile in Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Hospital Based Study

sanaa M kamal, Fahad Abdullah Alghulaydhawi, Abdullah Omair Alsuayri, Mutlaq Mohammed Almutlaq, Rashed Ibrahim Alqunaian, Abdullah Sawma


Background: Non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFLD) is an important cause of chronic liver disease of worldwide distribution. Its prevalence is rapidly increasing in developing countries. In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, primary or secondary NAFLD is frequently encountered given that obesity and diabetes mellitus are prevalent.

Objectives: The current study assessed the frequency, clinical patterns, status of liver function and lipid profile in patients with NAFLD.

Patients and Methods: This observational cross sectional study enrolled patients attending Salman Bin Abdul Aziz University Hospital, Kharj between October, 2012 and December 2014. All patients were invited to complete a structured closed ended dichotomous questionnaire about risk factors of NAFLD. Physical examination, BMI, liver function tests, lipid profile, HOMA-IR, abdominal ultrasound were also performed in all patients. The NAFLD Liver Fat Score and presence of steatosis were used for predicting the NAFLD. The NAFLD fibrosis score was used for staging the NAFLD related fibrosis.

Results: Patients with NAFLD constituted 32% of total patients presenting to SAU university hospital. Viral hepatitis, drug-induced liver injury, autoimmune hepatitis, hemochromatosis, and Wilson’s disease were excluded in these patients. NAFLD was greatly associated with 38% obese and 41% diabetic patients. Furthermore, 21% patients were also diagnosed with primary NAFLD. Various grades of steatosis were observed in ultrasound which is predominantly found in primary NAFLD. Additionally, patients with primary NAFLD have more elevated lipid profiles, HOMA-IR and liver enzymes. It’s worth noting that the NAFLD fibrosis scores are way high in patients with primary NAFLD compared to secondary NAFLD. Conclusion: NAFLD is the most frequent chronic disease among patients attending liver clinic in Salman Bin Abdul Aziz University Hospital. Diabetes, obesity, and unexplained abnormal liver function tests are the striking features of the patients where NAFLD should be suspected. Consistent monitoring of the progression of NAFLD is an essential component for predicting fibrosis in these patients in due course of treatment.

[Download]                                                                                                   174-181


Causes of Readmission of Newborns Within 7 Days Post Discharge from the Newborn Nursery  2010-2011



Background: A complete evaluation for newborn should be done within 24 hours after birth. This evaluation, however, is intended to identify unwanted disorders and abnormalities that might have severe consequences on the newborn future life, e.g. Birth injuries, anomalies, jaundice, or cardiopulmonary disorders. Objectives: To determined the common causes of readmission of neonates after discharge from nursery within 7 days. Methods: Cross section study by reviewing the medical records of all newborns were discharged from neonatal nursery and readmitted to King Abdulaziz Medical City (KAMC) in Riyadh within 7 days after birth from 2010-2011. Results: Readmission rate for both years is 1.34 %. We found that the most common causes of Emergency Department (ER) visit/readmission include jaundice (38%), Genital genitourinary tract (GUT) (11.4%), gastrointestinal tract (GIT) (11.3%), respiratory (9.3%) and poor feeding (8.6%). Conclusion: The Jaundice was the most common cause of readmission in all age group of gestational age except in babies who were between (29-33) majority of them readmitted with GIT pathology and to rule out sepsis (R/O sepsis). Transcutaneous bilirubinometer (TcB) decrease ER visit due to jaundice from 30% to 22.4% (p < 0.001).

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Causes of Readmission to Pediatric Intensive Care Unit in King Abdul-Aziz Medical City– RIYADH

Hala Alalem, Abdullah Juman Tammas, Rakan M. Aldarrab


Introduction: Pediatric intensive care (PICU) units are specialized sections in hospitals, which deal with severe conditions requiring special care. These units are operated by multifactorial teams. Many conditions require admission to PICU including respiratory conditions, neurological conditions, infectious conditions and many more. This study aims to identify the common causes of early readmission i.e. less than 48 hours post discharge in King Abdul-Aziz Medical city-Riyadh (KAMC)

Methods: This is a cross sectional study at KAMC PICU between years 2009-2013. Patients chart were reviewed retrospectively from the medical records department. The data was entered to data collection sheet and finally statistical analysis was done using SPSS to calculate means, medians and Frequencies.

Results: 3714 admissions to KAMC PICU between years 2009-2013. With a rate of 1.34% (50 patients) early readmitted. The highest cause of early readmission was due to respiratory conditions followed by sepsis and shock.

Conclusion: knowing the causes of early PICU readmission aids a lot in the performance of PICUs as protocols can be modified to decrease future incidence of readmission. In our center respiratory conditions were the highest cause for early readmission.

[Download]                                                                                                   187-192