December 2015 Edition

IJASR Volume 3- Issue 4, December 2015 Edition

All listed papers are published after full consent of respective author or co-author(s).
For any discussion on research subject or research matter, the reader should directly contact to undersigned authors.

Website Usability, Case Study: Shura System

Ahmad Almansour, Jamil Chikh Osman, Sahar Hamido

ABSTRACT: Usability is considered a quality attribute for the software. Recently, concern about usability has been increased as a competitive advantage which helps accomplishing effeteness, efficiency and users satisfaction. The web site is usually designed for achieving technical and functional purposes, but neglecting the most important factor; the end user. Usability focuses on end users, their capabilities, requirements and satisfaction. We aimed by this work to publicize the usability and its testing to the website Arabic users. A usability evaluation for Shura website using a Remote usability test for 36 participants was performed. Results were analyzed to determine the obstacles users were facing. Many of usability non-observance in the website were found and necessary recommendations (proposals) to redesign the website were made to improve it and make the user experience more acceptable.

[Download]                                                          PP 1-17


Knowledge and Attitude Regarding Eye Donation and Corneal Transplantation among Medical Students of Taibah University in Medina, Saudi Arabia 2015

Nojood Hameed, Esraa Jadidy

Abstract: Background and objectives: Eye donation after death is used successively to treat many corneal diseases. This study aims to assess knowledge and willingness of Taibah medical students on eye donation.

Design and Setting: During March to April of 2015, this cross-sectional study analyzed data from 408 students at College of Medicine Taibah University, Madinah, Saudi Arabia.

Subjects and Methods: The data were collected through a self-administered validated structured questionnaire. The questionnaire included socio-demographic data, and data about students’ awareness and knowledge on eye donation. The collected data were analyzed and compared between male and female students using appropriate statistical tests with the level of statistical significance was defined as P ≤ 0.05.

Results: The mean age of the studied 408 students was 21.8 (1.7) years. Their awareness on eye donation was 35.8% (146 out of 408).Less than one fourth of the students were willing to donate their eyes (21.1%), and their close relative’s eyes (22.1%).Most of the students (398, 97.5%) did not know about any eye bank in Saudi Arabia. About one third (29.7%) of the students were aware that the cornea can be removed separately from the donor and 54 (13.9%) were aware that the whole eye can be removed. The majority of the students (82.6%) did not know that the donor eye could be removed before transplant. The most important reasons for unwilling of eye donation were lack of awareness (22.6%) and fear of unknown (20.1%)

Conclusions: The study revealed a relatively low level of awareness and knowledge on eye donation among the studied students which addresses the need to educate and increase awareness of medical students on eye donation after death so that they can spread awareness among their families and community.

[Download]                                                          PP 18-26


Needle  stick Injuries among Healthcare Workers in a Governmental Hospital, Medina, Saudi Arabia 2012

Nojood Hameed, Amal Salman, Marwa Lafi , Reham Masoud, Marwa Abdallah, Nadia Ali, Rawan Obide , Shrouq Khalid

Abstract: Background: Most people who work in a health care facility are at risk of sustaining a needle stick injuries. Despite published guidelines and training programs, needle stick injuries have been neglected and remain an ongoing problem.

Objectives: To explore the prevalence and circumstances of needle stick injuries among healthcare Workers in a governmental hospital, Medina, Saudi Arabia 2012

Methods: A cross sectional study was carried out. All health care workers at the general surgery department of Auhod Hospital were targeted. Inclusion of 49 HCWs only was done. Self administrated data was collected using a specially designed questionnaire prepared in English form. It included data about socio-demographic characters, exposure to needle stick injuries, factors and circumstances that enhance injuries. The mean percent score for unfavourable circumstances during injection was calculated. Chi square test, Fishers’ Exact test and Mann-Whitney U test were used.

Results: 77.6% of HCWs gave injections; with an average of 1.4 ±0.50 injection per day. 81.6% received training on safe use of needles. 91.8% of HCWs perceived NSIs as dangerous and 95.9% knew the risks. All Saudi HCWs significantly received assisted disposal of needles.78.3% did not resheath syringe, 95.9% use safe boxes, 55.1% separated needle from syringes with gloved hands, 87.8% wearing  gloves on dealing with patients. The prevalence of NSIs among HCWs was 28.6 %.

Conclusion: NSIs were prevalent incident. Among HCWs, vaccination coverage for HBV was not complete. Not all HCWs perceived NSIs as dangerous. Some HCWs performed risky practices on injection and handling syringes. The score of unfavourable circumstances during injection was relatively high.

[Download]                                                          PP 27-36


Effect of Surface Roughness on Corrosion behavior of Aluminum Alloy 6061 in Salt Solution (3.5%NaCl)

Ahmad Almansour, Mazen Azizi, Abdul Munem Jesri, Sami Entakly

Abstract: The corrosion of AA6061 after changing the roughness at different degrees was investigated. The aim of this work was to determine the effect of roughness on corrosion behavior of AA6061.

The roughness of samples were (Ra= 0.64, 1.83, 3.48, 7.04 μm). The mechanical properties were investigated by hardness tests and tension tests. The corrosion behavior was investigated by immersion tests in 3.5% NaCl salt solutions. The microstructure was investigated by optical microscope.

The results showed that the corrosion rate deceased gradually in alkaline salt solution with decreasing the roughness. However in acidic and neutral salt solutions, with decreasing roughness the corrosion rates decreased gradually with the existence of a sharp steps in decreasing.

[Download]                                                          PP 37-45


Prevalence and Risk Factors of Tension Headache among 3rd Year Female Medical Students at Taibah University in Saudi Arabia

Nedaa Talee  Al-Jabry,  Abeer Zaki Abduljabbar, Abrar Nasser Maqsud, Baraah Abdolrahman Alhadad, Najah Muhmmad Almukhtar, Salwa Awad Al-Mutairy, Shoroog Mohammad Sahla, Waad Saleh Raji Al-Harbi, and Wesam Alsihaty.

Abstract: Background: Tension-type headache (TTH) is the most costly and common form of headache. This study aims to estimate the prevalence of TTH among 3rd year female medical student at Taibah University in Saudi Arabia and identify its risk factors.

Methodology: A cross sectional study has been conducted in duration from 1st of September to the end of November 2012. Two questionnaires, DASS scale and a self generated questionnaire including socio-demographic data and other risk factors of tension headache, have been distributed over all 3rd year female medical students at Taibah University, however 70.4% returned completed questionnaires.

Results: This study has been conducted over 50 female medical students, their mean age was 21.14 + 0.49. History of headache has been reported in 92% of students, however 58% of students had history of tension headache. No Significant differences (p>0.05) have been found between both groups of students with and without history of tension headache regarding 3 components of DASS scale, depression, anxiety, and stress. Students with history of tension headache reported higher percentage of daily mobile use more than 1hour, daily continuous setting on TV more than 3hours, daily continuous setting on computer more than 3hours, visual errors, and chronic sinusitis (41.4% vs. 19%), (20.7% vs. 14.3%), (69% vs. 66.7%), (89.7% vs. 66.7%), and (24.1% vs. 19%), respectively.

Conclusion: Headache and TTH were prevalent among 3rd year female medical students at Taibah University, however no significant risk factors for TTH have been observed in this study.

[Download]                                                         PP 46-53


Self-medication practice among medical and non-medical students at Taibah University, Madinah, Saudi Arabia

Mona Ehab Aljaouni, Asmaa Ahmed Hafiz, Hadeel Hadi Alalawi, Ghaida Moazi Alahmadi, Imad AlKhawaja


Background: Self-medication is a common practice worldwide, particularly among adolescents and University students, and the irrational use of medicines is a cause of concern

Objectives: To assess students’ practices, knowledge, awareness and the reasons behind self-medication at Taibah University, Madinah, Saudi Arabia.

Subjects and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from 1 June until 31 August (2015) at Taibah University, Madinah, Saudi Arabia. The study recruited 503 students of all academic years (349 medical and 154 non-medical students). The data were collected through a self-administered structured questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of demographic data and data about students’ practice, attitude and reasons behind the use of self- medication. The collected data were analyzed using appropriate statistical methods. The level of statistical significance was defined as P ≤ 0.05.

Results: The prevalence of self-medication among the studied students was 64.8% (326 out of 503 students), and there was significant difference by students’ faculty, study year and family structure. The prevalence was higher among medical (66%), final years (75%), female (65.5%), and students living alone (77.8%). The self- medication students reported that they used un-prescribed medication to treat headache (35.9%), sore-throat and upper respiratory tract infections (42.9%), fever (14.1%), GIT problems (5.9%), and skin problems 91.2%). The most important self- medications used by students were analgesics (60.3%), antibiotics (30.6%), antipyretics (5.6%), vitamins (3.4%), and antihistamines (1.1%). The main source of information about medicines was the study books and learning experiences. The experience in self-medication was the most important reason of using self-medication in the studied students. However, most of the students (medical and non medical) reported non-favorable attitude towards self-medication and suggested health education and legislation to stop this phenomenon among university students.

Conclusions: The study finding revealed a high prevalence rate of self-medication among the studied students. The study findings address the crucial need to develop structured health education programs to prevent growing trend of self-medication among University students.

[Download]                                                          PP 54-65


Novel Moxifloxacin Ion Selective Electrodes for Potentiometric Determination of Moxifloxacin 

in Pure Form and Pharmaceutical Formulations

Amir AlHaj Sakur, Mohammed Samr Bassmajei, Hashem A. Dabbeet

Abstract: Moxifloxacin (MFX) is a synthetic broad-spectrum bactericidal 4th generation fluoroquinolone. At this study, three PVC membrane ion selective electrodes were constructed for MFX analysis purposes. The electro-active materials are MFX-tetraphenyl borate (MFX-TPB), MFX-Reineckate (MFX-RNK) or MFX-Nessler’s (MFX-NSR). The characterization and analytical properties were determined. The casting membranes were plasticized by di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP). The constructed electrodes have inner reference Ag/AgCl electrode. In addition, the assembled sensors have outer reference Ag/AgCl electrode. The sensors were near Nernstian response when the percentages ion pair at membranes were 6%, 4%, 6% for MFX-TPB, MFX-RNK, and MFX-NSR, respectively. The electrodes exhibited a fast dynamic response of 14-21 sec for a period of 10-13 days, without significant change in the electrodes parameters. The sensors worked at pH ranges 2.0-5.0, 2.0-5.5, and 2.0-6.0 for MFX-TPB, MFX-RNK, MFX-NSR sensors, respectively. The sensors have been used as indicator electrodes for direct determination of MFX in pharmaceutical preparations with mean relative standard deviation less than 2% indicating good precision, as well as in pure form solutions with average recovery of 98.58%, 99.09%, 99.27% and a mean relative standard deviation of 1.28, 1.81 and 1.91% at 0.438μg/ml MFX•HCl for MFX-TPB, MFX-RNK, and MFX-NSR sensors respectively.

[Download]                                                           PP 66-75


Enterprise Ontology-based Information Systems Development

Tarek Fatyani , Junich Iijima, Jaehyun Park

Abstract: Information Systems Development (ISD) has encountered a variety of challenges in identifying complex requirements from multiple stakeholders. Therefore, users and their information environments have been a central issue for developing an abstract model of the early stages of information system development. To address this issue, modeling methodologies have considered modeling the enterprise as a social system. DEMO is a social system modeling methodology that addresses diverse social theories and multiple stakeholders’ requirements. Additionally, the DEMO model has improved not only the quality of the requirements but also reduced the time for implementation during the early stages of ISD. Therefore, this research focuses on developing an information system based on the DEMO model by deriving the conceptual artifacts of an IS from the DEMO model. Based on numerous real world projects, this study proposes that use of the DEMO model could lead to important discussions associated with actor roles, responsibility, and authority. These discussions are critical when defining the objectives and requirements of any information system to be developed.

[Download]                                                          PP 76-100


Kynurenine-modified serum proteins are a new marker of cardiovascular disorders developing in type 2 diabetes

Mohamed Alaa Ahmadou, Mohamad Sami JOHA


Objective(S): Cardiovascular disorder (CVD) is the major complication of type 2 diabetes. Tryptophan/kynurenine pathway has been related to CDV progression and diabetogenesis. In this paper, we will assess the presence of Kynurenine-modified serum proteins (KMSP) as a new predictor of CVD development in type 2 diabetes.

Materials and Methods: Peripheral blood was obtained from 189 participants. The diabetic patients were classified into two groups: group DC (included 63 type2 diabetic patients with CVD) and group D (included 63 type2 diabetic patients without CVD). The group N (normal people) included 63 volunteers’ people. The presence of KMSP was assessed by homemade-ELISA method using highly specific monoclonal antibodies.

Results: KMSP were significantly higher in diabetic patients and especially in DC group. Furthermore, KMSP level was only related with the onset of diabetes regardless of the presence of CVD.

Conclusion: KMSP predicted CVD in type 2 diabetes and might participate in CVD development.

[Download]                                                          PP 101-105


Sensitive spectrophotometric methods for Determination of zolmitriptan in bulk form and in tablets via complex formation with tow sulphonphthalein acid dyes

Amir Alhaj Sakur, Reem Obaydo

Abstract: Two simple, sensitive and extraction-free spectrophotometric methods have been developed for the determination of zolmitriptan (ZMT) in pure form and in pharmaceutical formulations. The methods are based on the formation of yellow coloured ion-pair complexes between ZMT and two sulphonphthalein acid dyes, bromocresol green (BCG) method (A) and bromocresol purple (BCP) method (B) with absorption maximum at 411 nm and 403 nm for BCG and BCP, respectively. The stoichiometry of the complex in either case was found to be 1: 1. Reaction conditions were optimized to obtain the maximum colour intensity. Beer’s law was obeyed in the concentration ranges of 0.5–15.0and 0.375–12.0 μg/mL with BCG and BCP, respectively. The limits of quantification (LOQ) were 0.212 and 0.144 μg/mL for BCG and BCP methods, respectively . molar absorptivity (Ɛ) values were 24795, and 34548 L/ for BCG and BCP methods, respectively.The proposed methods have been applied successfully to the analysis of ZMT in pure form and in its dosage forms and no interference was observed from common excipients present in pharmaceutical formulations. Statistical comparison of the results with the reference method showed excellent agreement and indicated no significant difference in accuracy and precision.

[Download]                                                          PP 106-114


The Trp64Arg Polymorphism in the ADRB3 Gene is Associated with Hypertension in Syrians

Hiba Kady, Mohammad Imad Balid,  Mohammad Yaser Abajy

Abstract: Genes involved in the regulation of catecholamine function may be important in the development of hypertension. The β-adrenergic receptors importantly influence vascular reactivity and may regulate blood pressure. Genetic polymorphisms of the β-adrenergic receptors’ genes have been shown to alter the function of several adrenergic receptor subtypes and thus to modify the response to catecholamine. To determine if the common single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) Trp64Arg in β3-adrenergic receptor gene (ADRB3) is associated with hypertension in adults, we recruited 78 individuals involving 37 healthy normotensive controls and 41 hypertensive patients who are between 36 and 70 years old in a case – control study which will be discussed in this paper. Results suggest that the Trp64Arg polymorphism contributes to hypertension in our population.

[Download]                                                          PP 115-119


Wind energy: site characterization and application of remote sensing


Abstract: Wind energy is becoming popular source of renewable energy based power generation for electricity in windy areas. The wind resource assessment is essential and necessary step for appropriate wind turbine selection. Any wind energy development project has mainly three important aspects: quantification of available wind resource, site geographical and geological conditions and wind turbine power curve. In this paper initial two aspects are discussed along with the application of remote sensing techniques. The remote sensing application is important due increasing hub height of modern wind turbines in on shore and off shore sites, mountainous and complex terrain.

[Download]                                                          PP 120-126


A descriptive study of self-medication practices among patients in a public health care system in Tabuk City 

Amal.H.Albalawi , Bashayer.D.AlAnazi, Kholoud.A,Althmali, Ohoud.M.Alzhahrani, Hind.S.Aloqbi


Objective: This study investigates the prevalence and the reasons of  Self-medication practices among patients  in Tabuk city /KSA .

Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study  was conduct by 300 questionnaires were distributed randomly to 300 adult  in different age group ,sex  and  level of education  at PHC in Tabuk city one of the largest cities in KSA .

Result: the results of this study showed a high percentage of people who had practiced self-medication..The mean age of respondents was the adolescent. While the common source of self-medication was the private pharmacy.

Conclusion: this study demonstrated that the self medication is common in Tabuk City of Saudi Arabia. Highlight the important and the most reasons of self-medication practice .

[Download]                                                          PP 127-133


Prevalence, Severity, and Impacts of Premenstrual Syndrome among Female Medical Students at Taibah University in Saudi Arabia

Nesreen Muhtaseb, Afnan Al-Raddadi, Imtinan Albukhari,  Eman Fadil, Nehal Alghamdi, Maryam Fahmie,  Duoaa Abdoh, Dareen Al-Hendi


Background: The premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is particularly common in the younger age groups and, therefore represents a significant public health problem in young girls. This study aims to estimate the prevalence of PMS, and determine its severity and impacts among female medical students at Taibah University in AlMadina Al-Munawarah city, Saudi Arabia.

Methods: This is cross sectional study, two different questionnaires covering American College of Obstetrics and Gynaecology (ACOG) criteria to diagnose PMS, demographic & reproductive factors, physical activity have been distributed over all 1st and 2nd year medical female students at Taibah University, where 81.2% have returned completed questionnaires.

Results: Premenstrual syndrome was prevalent in 56.4% of participating students. No significant differences (p<0.05) have been found between students with PMS and those without PMS regarding effect of premenstrual period on student’s academic & social life (perceived effect on overall academic life, lectures attendance, grades, social activities, and sleep rhythm), however students with PMS perceived effect of premenstrual period on overall academic life more than those with no PMS (40.9%vs. 35.3%).

Conclusion: we concluded that although PMS prevalent among medical students at Taibah University in Saudi Arabia, it is not a significant problem.

[Download]                                                           PP 134-142


Synthesis of New Azo Dyes Derived from 2,7-Dihydroxynaphthalene

Mahmoud Aboudan, Ryad Kassab

Abstract:Two novel azo dyes were synthesized by coupling of diazonium salts of 2-aminophenol and 1-amino-2-hydroxynaphthalene-4-sulphonic acid diazonium salts with the title compound 2,7-dihydroxynaphthalene. The resultant dyes 1-(2-hydroxyphenylazo)-2,7-dihydroxynaphthalene (dye I) and 1-(2,7-dihydroxy-naphthylazo)-2-hydroxy-4-naphthalenesulfonic acid (dye II) respectively were characterized by IR, HPLC-MS, 1HNMR and 13C-NMR spectroscopies. Some of physical constants, e.g. ionization constants and melting point were calculated, there was pK1=4.32, pK2=8.26, pK3=10.58, m. p. 220±2°C, and pK1=7.62, pK2=8.69, pK3=9.65, m. p. 289±2°C for dye I and dye II, respectively.

[Download]                                                           PP 143-149