March 2015 Edition

IJASR Volume 3- Issue 1, March 2015 Edition 

All listed papers are published after full consent of respective author or co-author(s).
For any discussion on research subject or research matter, the reader should directly contact to undersigned authors.

Influence of nanoprecipitation method parameters on nanoparticles loaded with gatifloxacin for ocular drug delivery

A. Maaz1, W. Abdelwahed2, I.A. Tekko3, S. Trefi1

ABSTRACT: Poor ocular bioavailability of drugs (<1%) from conventional eye drops (i.e., solution, suspension, and ointments) is mainly due to the physiologic barriers of the eye. In general, ocular efficacy is closely related to ocular drug bioavailability, which may be enhanced by increasing corneal drug penetration and prolonging precorneal drug residence time. In our current work, we developed a colloidal system that is polycaprolactone (PCL) nanoparticles for Gatifloxacin ophthalmic delivery, to improve precorneal residence time and ocular penetration for enhanced drug bioavailability. In this research, we studied nanoparticles preparation procedures and the effect of process variables on its characters. Nanoparticles were prepared by nanoprecipitation technique and characterized for various properties such as particle size, polydispersity index PdI, zeta potential and Entrapment efficiency EE%. The developed nanosuspension showed a mean particle size in the range of 184 to 207nm, suitable for ophthalmic application with zeta potential range of -30 to -32 mV and Entrapment Efficiency EE% of 40%. These results demonstrated that, the developed nanosuspension was found to be applicable for sustained ocular drug delivery allowing minimizing dose repetition to reduce systemic side effects and enhance patient compliance.

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Evaluating four of the most popular Open Source and Free Data Mining Tools

Ahmad Al-Khoder1, Hazar Harmouch2

ABSTRACT The ability of DM([1]) to provide predictive information derived from huge datasets became an effective tool for companies and individuals. Along with the increasing importance of this science, there was rapid increase in the number of free and open source tools developed to implement its concepts. It wouldn’t be easy to decide which tool performs the desired task better, plus we cannot rely solely on description provided by the vendor. This paper aims to evaluate four of the most popular open source and free DM tools, namely: R, RapidMiner, WEKA and KNIME to help user, developer, and researcher in choosing his preferred tool in terms of platform in use, format of data to be mined and desired output format, needed data visualization form, performance, and the intent to develop unexciting functionality. As a result, All tools under study are modular, easy to extend, and can run on cross-platforms. R is the leading in terms of range of input/output formats, and visualization types, followed by RapidMiner, KNIME, and finally WEKA. Based on the results yielded it can be conducted that WEKA outperformed the highest accuracy level and subsequently the best performance.

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Effect of artificial aging on Structure, Mechanical properties and Corrosion behavior of Aluminum Alloy 6061

Ahmad Almansour1, Mazen Azizi2, Abdul Munem Jesri3, Sami Entakly4

ABSTRACT: The corrosion of AA6061 after natural aging at different temperatures and different medium was investigated. The aim of this work was to determine the effect of quenching mediums and temperature on the microstructure and  the corrosion behavior of AA6061.The samples conditions were; As received, natural aged (490, 530,570°C mediums of quenching water, oil ).The microstructure was investigated by optical microscope. The mechanical properties were investigated by hardness test. The corrosion behavior was investigated by immersion test in acidic pH = 2 and alkaline pH = 12 and neutral  PH = 7 chloride solutions.The result showed that the corrosion rate of the alloy was (0.013925865mm/y) for as received AA6061 and  (0.011938369, 0.012006523mm/y) for solution temperature 490°C and quenching medium (water, oil) respectively, (0.011127151, 0.012188457mm/y) for solution temperature 530°C and quenching medium (water, oil) respectively, (0.0117488, 0.011751153mm/y) for solution temperature 570°C and quenching medium (water, oil) respectively in acidic salt solution.In neutral salt solution the corrosion rate was (0.002266478 mm/y) for as received AA6061 and  (0.002597958, 0.002677378 mm/y) for solution temperature 490°C and quenching medium (water, oil) respectively, (0.002415756, 0.002819388mm/y) for solution temperature 530°C and quenching medium (water, oil) respectively, (0.002952099, 0.003644528mm/y) for solution temperature 570°C and quenching medium (water, oil) respectively.In alkaline salt solution the corrosion rate was (0.029565995mm/y) for as received AA6061 and  (0.022907954, 0.025419624mm/y) for solution temperature 490°C and quenching medium (water, oil) respectively, (0.03025972, 0.031595412mm/y) for solution temperature 530°C and quenching medium (water, oil) respectively, (0.027642156, 0.032702518mm/y) for solution temperature 570°C and quenching medium (water, oil) respectively.

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Antibacterial activity of four herbal extracts against methicillin resistant Bacterial strains isolated from patients in Almadinah hospitals, Saudi Arabia.

Khalil Al-Ali, Mohamad Abdelrazik, Hassan Hemeg, Hani Ozbak

ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to explore antimicrobial effect of four plant extracts Mentha cervina , Mentha longifolia,Ocimum basilicum and Origanum vulgare against multi-drug resistance (MDR) Staphylococcus aureus isolated from wound infections in Al madinah Almounawarah, Saudi Arabia. MRSA is resistant to not only methicillin and other β- lactam antibacterial agents but also other antibacterial agents; therefore new agents are needed to treat MRSA. Antibacterial activity of the medicinal plant extract was determined using well diffusion assays and paper disc diffusion method. The medicinal plant extract exhibited antibacterial activity against multi-drug resistance (MRSA) Staphylococcus aureus. The synergetic effect was clearly observed with Mentha longifolia were combined with Ocimmum basilicum , and followed by Mentha longifolia + Origanum vulgare, Mentha longifolia + Mentha cervina and Ocimmum basilicum + Mentha cervina then , Origanum vulgare + Ocimmum basilicum and Origanum vulgare + Mentha cervina and showed the strongest antimicrobial activity. our result confirmed that ethanolic extracts, could be a possible source to obtain new and effective herbal medicines to treat infections caused by multi-drug resistant strains of microorganisms from community as well as hospital settings. In addition ethanolic extracts of our medicinal plants may have the potential to restore the effectiveness of β-lactam Antibacterial agents against MRSA.

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